Phosphorylated derivatives of the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol
(PtdIns), known as phosphoinositides (PIs), regulate membrane-proximal
cellular processes by recruiting specific protein effectors involved in cell
signalling, membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal dynamics. Two PIs that
are generated through the activities of distinct PI 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are of
special interest in cancer research.
The tumour-associated glycoprotein podoplanin is expressed in fibroblast-like synoviocytes of the hyperplastic synovial lining layer in rheumatoid arthritis
Ekwall et al.
Ekwall et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011, 13:R40 http://arthritis-research.com/content/13/2/R40 (7 March 2011)
Ekwall et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011, 13:R40 http://arthritis-research.
Tumour necrosis factor-a(TNF-a) is a key mediator of inflammation in
host defence against infection and in autoimmune disease. Its production is
controlled post-transcriptionally by multiple RNA-binding proteins that
interact with the TNF-aAU-rich element and regulate its expression; one
of these is Fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1).
Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) protein exhibits many diverse biochemi-cal functions on the tumour suppressor protein p53, including transcrip-tional suppression and E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. However, more recent
data have shown that MDM2 can exhibit ATP-dependent molecular chap-erone activity and directly mediate folding of the p53 tetramer. Analysing
the ATP-dependent function of MDM2 will provide novel insights into the
evolution and function of the protein.
Nitrogen monoxide (NO) is a cytotoxic eﬀector molecule produced by macrophages that results in Fe mobilization from tumour target cells which inhibits DNA synthesis and mitochondrial respiration. It is well known that NO has a high aﬃnity for Fe, and we showed that NO-mediated Fe mobilization is markedly potentiated by glutathione (GSH) generated by the hexose monophosphate shunt [Watts, R.N. & Richardson, D.R. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 4724–4732]. We hypothesized that GSH completes the coordination shell of an NO–Fe complex that is released from the cell.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Extracellular heat shock protein 70 inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α induced proinflammatory mediator production in fibroblast-like synoviocytes...
The BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only protein, B-cell lymphoma
2 interacting mediator of cell death (BIM) is a potent pro-apoptotic protein
belonging to the B-cell lymphoma 2 protein family. In recent years,
advances in basic biology have provided a clearer picture of how BIM kills
cells and how BIM expression and activity are repressed by growth factor
signalling pathways, especially the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1⁄2
and protein kinase B pathways.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signal transduction is
often hyperactivated in tumour cells and therefore considered a promising
target for cancer therapy. A number of computational models have been
developed which describe the pathway in great detail.
Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand
(TRAIL) has attractedmuch attention because of its ability
to kill tumour cells. In this study, we demonstrated that
treatment of QGY-7703 cells with the combination of
TRAIL and etoposide resulted in synergistic cytotoxic
effects. In dissecting the mechanism underlying this syner-gistic effect, we found that treatment with etoposide alone
resulted in the upregulation of Bax, while the level of trun-catedBid (tBid)wasunchanged.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumour cells is often caused
by the overexpression of the plasma drug transporter
P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This protein is an active efflux pump
for chemotherapeutic drugs,natural products and hydro-phobicpeptides.Despite theadvancesof recent years,we still
have an unclear view of the molecular mechanismby which
P-gp transports such a wide diversity of compounds across
Human disc-large (hDlg) is a scaffold protein critical for the maintenance
of cell polarity and adhesion. hDlg is a component of the p38c MAP
kinase pathway, which is important for the adaptation of mammalian cells
to changes in environmental osmolarity.
Tumour necrosis factor-a(TNF-a) is a cytokine that is involved in many
functions, including the inflammatory response, immunity and apoptosis.
Some of the responses of TNF-a are mediated by caspase-1, which is
involved in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1b, interleukin-18 and interleukin-33.