All optical phenomena experience interference effects at some level. Even light
from an incandescent light bulb has partial coherence that can lead to constructive
or destructive interference when multiple light paths are combined at a detector.
The ubiquitous nature of interference underlies many phenomena and techniques in
biological optics. This chapter lays the foundation for interferometry applied to
biology and medicine.
The evolution of technological advances in infrared sensor technology, image processing, “smart”
algorithms, knowledge-based databases, and their overall system integration has resulted in new methods
of research and use in medical infrared imaging. The development of infrared cameras with focal
plane arrays not requiring cooling added a new dimension to this modality. New detector materials
with improved thermal sensitivity are now available and production of high-density focal plane arrays
(640×480) has been achieved.
This ‘toolkit’ is designed as a summary and reminder of the key
elements of practising evidence-based medicine (EBM). It has
largely been adapted from resources developed at the Centre for
Evidence-based Medicine. For more detailed coverage, you should
refer to the other EBM texts and web pages cited throughout.
The fi rst page of each chapter presents a ‘minimalist’ checklist of
the key points. Further sections within each chapter address these
points in more detail and give additional background information.
The number of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) has been conservatively estimated to
approximately double by 2030 to a worldwide prevalence of 4.4% at which time 366 million
people will have diabetes (Wild et al., 2004). As the number of people with DM rises, so too
will the burden of diabetic foot disease, particularly since the factors contributing to ulcer
formation such as peripheral neuropathy and vascular disease are already present in 10% of
people at the time of diagnosis (Boulton et al., 2005).
Critical loads, and other approaches that use models or empirical observations to link deposition with effects, provide tools that enable
resource managers and policymakers to evaluate tradeoffs between the costs of more stringent emissions controls and the benefits of
ecosystem services provided by healthy ecosystems.
A critical loads approach can be used to synthesize scientific knowledge about air pollution thresholds that cause adverse impacts
or ecosystem change.
Brightly colored condoms, arranged in the shape of bicycles, eyeglasses,
or flowers: part of an extensive campaign against the AIDS risk, these
have been a common sight on billboards in Germany for several years
now. An advertising spot presented on the Arte television channel
(which defines itself as the cultural television channel of Europe) calls
on viewers to “fight together.” The spots on German television (distributed
by both private and public channels) are about “not giving
AIDS a chance.
Interleukin (IL)-10 was cloned from the common carp
(Cyprinus carpioL.) using IL-10 primers from carp head
kidney following stimulation with concanavalin A and
lipopolysaccharide. The cDNA consisted of a 1096 bp se-quence containing a 55 bp 5¢ untranslated region and a
498 bp 3¢ untranslated region. An open reading frame of
543 bp encoded a putative 180 amino acid protein with a
putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids.
Congratulations! The commitment to pursue certification reflects professionalism and a desire to
demonstrate that you have obtained the knowledge required to be a skilled and competent
medical-surgical nurse. This book is a good step toward that process. Medical-Surgical Certificiation
Examination: Pearls of Wisdom has been designed to help you improve your performance on the
Certified Medical-Surgical Nurse examination as well as help you identify some weak areas in your
The popular favor with which former editions of this work have been received has required the production of
such a vast number of copies, that the original electrotype plates from which it has heretofore been printed,
have been completely worn out.
The book has been re-produced in London, England, where six editions have already been necessary to supply
the demand for it.
In order to continue its publication to meet the demand which is still active in this country, it has been
necessary, inasmuch as the original electrotype plates have become worn and useless, to re-set the work
Louis N. Katz and Herman K. Hellerstein wrote a scholarly discussion on the evolution of our knowledge of
electrocardiography and published it in Circulation of the Blood: Men and Ideas edited by Fishman and
Richards.* Interested readers will be spellbound to discover how early observers gradually began to
understand that lightning, lodestone, amber (when rubbed), and the torpedo fish had something in common -
Apparently, the torpedo fish was the subject of great interest.
This book gives a clear and detailed overview of some of the different anorectal and
colonic pathologies. Although some of these conditions are very common in our
patient population, our knowledge and our experience in managing these
conditions is sometimes lacking. The aim of this book is to provide clinicians with
a tool for rapid consultation and a source of information in order to properly
answer the patient’s questions. Each section clearly describes the condition with
up-to-date management guidelines and some very precious clinical pearls....
In undergraduate medical education there is a trend towards the development of ‘core’
curricula. The aim is to facilitate the teaching of essential and relevant knowledge, skills
and attitudes. This contrasts with traditional medical school courses, where the emphasis
was on detailed factual knowledge, often with little obvious clinical relevance. In addition,
students’ learning is now commonly examined using objective structured clinical
examinations (OSCEs), which again assess the practical use of knowledge, rather than the
regurgitation of ‘small print’....
For developing an appropriate strategy for combating tuberculosis in the country, it is necessary to obtain a precise estimate of the disease in the community. The process of estimating it for as large and diverse a country as India is not only difficult, but is also expensive and time consuming.
This guide is intended for non-obstetricians working in remote facilities where medical resources are limited. It does not have the ambition to teach obstetrics but rather to give an overview of the essentials needed to prevent and manage common medical problems during pregnancy and delivery, and to deliver the child in the best possible conditions.
Aldo-keto reductase 1B1 and 1B3 (AKR1B1 and AKR1B3) are the pri-mary human and mouse prostaglandin F2a(PGF2a) synthases, respectively,
which catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of PGH2, a common
intermediate of various prostanoids, to form PGF2a. In this study, we
found that AKR1B1 and AKR1B3, but not AKR1B7 and AKR1C3, also
catalyzed the isomerization of PGH2 to PGD2 in the absence of NADPH
The causes of back pain, the most common of all consultations, vary enormously, therefore making accurate diagnosis especially important. Written by a team of highly regarded scientists with a vast experience of the subject, An Atlas of Back Pain not only explains how to determine the underlying causes of your patients' conditions but also describes the various treatment options available.
Among the RFamide peptide groups, PQRFamide peptides, such as neuro-peptide FF (NPFF) and neuropeptide AF (NPAF), share a common C-ter-minal Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-NH2 motif. LPXRFamide (X¼L or Q) peptides,
such as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), frog growth hormone-releasing peptide (fGRP), goldfish LPXRFamide peptide and mammalian
RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs), also share a C-terminal Leu-Pro-Leu⁄Gln-Arg-Phe-NH2 motif.
gibberifrons(family Nototheniidae) contains two hemoglo-bins (Hb 1 andHb 2). The concentration of Hb 2 (15–20%
of the total hemoglobin content) is higher than that found
in most cold-adapted Notothenioidei. Unlike the other
Antarctic species so far examined having two hemoglobins,
Hb 1 and Hb 2 do not have globin chains in common.
Therefore this hemoglobin system is made of four globins
(two a-and twob-chains). The complete amino-acid
sequence of the two hemoglobins (Hb 1,a
has been established. ...
Abstract Mitochondria are sub-cellular organelles that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). As suggested over 70 years ago by Otto Warburg and recently confirmed with molecular techniques, alterations in respiratory activity and in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) appear to be common features of malignant cells. Somatic mtDNA mutations have been reported in many types of cancer cells, and some reports document the prevalence of inherited mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in cancer patients.