This paper studies performance effects of appointing other firms' executive directors
to corporate boards in the UK. Consistent with the explicit advantages associated
with non-executive directors, as set out in the various UK corporate governance
codes, our basic hypothesis maintains that, in the presence of director fixed effects,
the appointment of an executive director as non-executive director will have a
positive impact on the appointing company‟s performance.
The dataset contains information on name, date of birth, date of arrival in Germany, sex,
country of origin, first city of residence and a unique code that identified members of the
same family. After sample size calculation the cohort was restricted to a representative
sample of 34,393 Aussiedler who were at least 15 years old when they migrated to
To ascertain vital status of each cohort member until the 31st December 2005 a follow up
procedure was performed: Letters were sent to local registry offices in the cities of
To investigate the role of precrisis external imbalances that may have triggered both fiscal
consolidation and larger-than-expected headwinds to growth, we control for the precrisis
(2007) current-account-deficit-to-GDP ratio, again taken from the April 2010 WEO database
(IMF, 2010c), and find similar results. We obtain similar results when controlling for the
stock of precrisis (2007) net foreign liabilities in percent of GDP, based on the updated and
extended version of dataset constructed by Lane and Milesi-Ferretti (2007).
Magical describes conditions that are outside our understanding of cause and effect.
What cannot be attributed to human or natural forces is explained as magic: super-human,
super-natural will. Even in modern societies, magic-based explanations are powerful because,
given the complexity of the universe, there are so many opportunities to use them.
The history of medicine is defined by progress in understanding the human body –
from magical explanations to measurable results.
Over the years, several studies have been performed to analyse plant–patho-gen interactions. Recently, functional genomic strategies, including proteo-mics and transcriptomics, have contributed to the effort of defining gene
and protein function and expression profiles. Using these ‘omic’
approaches, pathogenicity- and defence-related genes and proteins
expressed during phytopathogen infections have been identified and enor-mous datasets have been accumulated.
The most established nationwide medical registry in Germany is the Perinatal Registry, which collects
maternal health records concerning pregnancy, delivery and perinatal outcome from now more than
1100 hospitals. Over the past 16 years, data collection was transformed from printed questionnaires to
digital records. A special web-based information source of the German Perinatal Registry does not
This paper introduces an unsupervised vector approach to disambiguate words in biomedical text that can be applied to all-word disambiguation. We explore using contextual information from the Uniﬁed Medical Language System (UMLS) to describe the possible senses of a word. We experiment with automatically creating individualized stoplists to help reduce the noise in our dataset. We compare our results to SenseClusters and Humphrey et al. (2006) using the NLM-WSD dataset and with SenseClusters using conﬂated data from the 2005 Medline Baseline. ...