Medical environmentalism

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  • Technology is a powerful force of change in our world. We live longer and arguably better lives than our great-great-grandparents because of advances in medical, communication, and transportation technology. As we enter this new century there is apparently no end in sight for the transformative potential of human innovation. However, there is now ample evidence that the real legacy of invention is defined in equal parts by its benefits to society as well as its costs. There is no technology that comes without some level of risk.

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  • Over the past several years, scientists, public health officials, and policy makers have become increasingly interested in understanding how the emergence and spread of infectious diseases could be affected by environmental factors, particularly variations in climate. In September 1995 the Institute of Medicine/ National Academy of Sciences and the National Science and Technology Council held a Conference on Human Health and Global Climate Change.

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  • Dynamical systems theory in mathematical biology and environmental science has attracted much attention from many scientific fields as well as mathematics. For example, “chaos” is one of its typical topics. Recently the preservation of endangered species has become one of the most important issues in biology and environmental science, because of the recent rapid loss of biodiversity in the world. In this respect, permanence or persistence, new concepts in dynamical systems theory, seem important.

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  • With increasing recognition of the environmental impact of food and drink, future food policy and dietary advice need to go beyond the traditional focus on nutrient recommendations for health to include wider issues of sustainability. The task should not be underestimated, not least because the issue of sustainability is complex with multiple dimensions, including environmental, economic and social aspects. Current dietary advice is based on nutrient recommendations for health.

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  • Dynamical systems theory in mathematical biology and environmental science has attracted much attention from many scientific fields as well as mathematics. For example, “chaos” is one of its typical topics. Recently the preservation of endangered species has become one of the most important issues in biology and environmental science, because of the recent rapid loss of biodiversity in the world. In this respect, permanence or persistence, new concepts in dynamical systems theory, seem important.

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  • The National Institute of General Medical Sciences is committed to encouraging and supporting basic biomedical and behavioral research in which scientists explore the unknown. Important medical advances have grown from the pursuit of curiosity about fundamental questions in biology, physics, and chemistry.1 For example: n A scientist studying marine snails found a powerful new drug for chronic pain. n Studying how electricity affects microbes led to a widely used cancer medicine.

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  • At present, the main field of biosensor applications is still the determination of blood glu‐ cose, as over 90% of all commercial biosensors are developed for diabetes control. However, regardless of the remarkable success in the development of glucose biosensors, there are nu‐ merous other emerging fields to be addressed, particularly the monitoring of environment, healthcare and medical diagnostics.

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  • Many biological C-H activation reactions exhibit nonclassical kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). These nonclassical KIEs are too large (kH/kD 7) and/or exhibit unusual temperature dependence such that the Arrhenius prefactor KIEs (AH/AD) fall outside of the semiclassical range near unity. The focus of this minireview is to discuss such KIEs within the context of the environmentally coupled hydrogen tunneling model.

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  • Technology is a powerful force of change in our world. We live longer and arguably better lives than our great-great-grandparents because of advances in medical, communication, and transportation technology. What this can or should mean for the process of creating and nurturing emerging technology remains a central question for all of society, one which this book explores for the emerging area of nanotechnology.

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  • During the past year the Board was also active on the policy front, releasing a major report on ten years of medical malpractice payments in Massachusetts, from 1994 to 2003. The Board also directed its Patient Care Assessment unit to monitor and oversee the implementation of the recommendations made in the Department of Public Health/Betsy Lehman Center report on weight loss surgery.

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  • Fujishima and Honda (1972) demonstrated the potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) semiconductor materials to split water into hydrogen and oxygen in a photo-electrochemical cell. Their work triggered the development of semiconductor photocatalysis for a wide range of environmental and energy applications. One of the most significant scientific and commercial advances to date has been the development of visible light active (VLA) TiO2 photocatalytic materials. In this review, a background on TiO2 structure, properties and electronic properties in photocatalysis is presented.

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  • This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. Text computer typeset by A & C Black Printed in Spain by Graphycems

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  • Medicine is an ever-changing science. As new research and clinical experience broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment and drug therapy are required. The au- thor and the publisher of this work have checked with sources believed to be reliable in their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with the standards accepted at the time of publication.

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  • With the new millennium comes change. Indoor air quality methodologies have expanded, evolved, andmorphed. The focus is shifting froma knee-jerk to a more proactive response. Although indoor air quality in older buildings will continue to present old challenges, new construction is going forward with new challenges.

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  • At its inception, the original plan for this symposium was to emphasize the medical aspects of inorganic chemistry, rather than to go over once more new developments in bioinorganic chemistry, important as the subject is, since the latter topic has been treated many times in recent symposia reviews and monographs.

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  • There are several reasons that may explain why the prevalence of heart failure is increasing: ageing of the population, the success in prolonging survival in coronary patients, and the success in postponing coronary events by effective prevention in those patients at high risk or those patients who have already survived a first event (secondary prevention) (Senni et al, 1999). Advances in medical therapy have resulted in improved survival in patients with moderate and severe heart failure, but the prognosis for end-stage heart failure patients still remains poor.

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  • This chapter provides a brief overview of the history of women’s health and the array of factors that have played a central role in shaping it. First, it presents a background describing gender-based disparities in health care. It then discusses the cultural context in which women have been perceived by society, their representation in the health care workforce, and the development of the medical specialty of obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN), as well as social, economic, and political forces that have shaped the medical care provided to women....

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  • Presence of epigenetic marks enables cells with the same genotype have potential to display different phenotypes and differentiate into many cell-types with different functions, and responses to environmental and intercellular signaling. For example, DNA methylation is essential for the process of imprinting. Imprinted genes are expressed from only one parental allele. This mono-allelic gene expression is directed by epigenetic marks established in the mammalian germ line and a single mutation, either genetic or epigenetic, can cause disease.

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  • Because there is no clear definition of the asthma phenotype, researchers studying the development of this complex disease turn to characteristics that can be measured objectively, such as atopy (manifested as the presence of positive skin-prick tests or the clinical response to common environmental allergens), airway hyperresponsiveness (the tendency of airways to narrow excessively in response to triggers that have little or no effect in normal individuals), and other measures of allergic sensitization.

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  • Nature has created numerous elegant living systems, including the human, based on the hierarchical functional units—molecule, cell, tissue, and organ. A living system develops through a long evolutionary process, during which the system undergoes genotypic and phenotypic changes in response to environmental simuli.

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