Medical expenditure

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  • e California Simulation of Insurance Markets (CalSIM) model is designed to estimate the impact of various elements of the ACA on employer decisions to offer insurance coverage and individual decisions to obtain coverage in California.

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  • Arather startling statistic opened the eyes of many on our committee when they were invited to undertake a study for the Institute of Medicine (IOM) on cancer survivorship. The eye-opening statistic describes a burgeoning population of cancer survivors who live among us today and who are more than 10 million strong. Cancer survivors swell the ranks of the many places where we live, work, and play, yet, as our committee concluded, they remain largely understudied and lost to follow-up by our scientific research and health services delivery communities, respectively.

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  • Lecture Health economics - Chapter 2: Health, medical care, and medical spending. This chapter presents the following content: An economic model of utility, health, and medical care, measuring health status, empirical evidence on health production, health care expenditures.

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  • Almost 75 percent of the elderly (age 65 and over) have at least one chronic illness.3 About 50 percent have at least two chronic illnesses.3 Chronic conditions can lead to severe and immediate disabilities, such as hip fractures and stroke, as well as progressive disability that slowly erodes the ability of elderly people to care for themselves.4 According to AHRQ’s 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS),a about 14.3 percent of people age 65 and over—4.5 million elderly Americans—require assistance with bathing, dressing, preparing meals, or shopping.

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  • This book is about change in the management of public services – how much of it and what consequences. For over two decades the goal of restructuring welfare provision has been at the heart of UK government policy. Under the Conservatives the focus was on controlling expenditure and re-organising services to make professionals more accountable for resource decisions. In health, education and social care, the objective was to install a system of managed provision heavily influenced by the practices of private firms.

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  • User benefits are derived from valuing traveler impact measurements such as changes in person hours traveled or vehicle hours traveled (VHT), person miles traveled or vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and safety and reliability improvements. Unit costs are then applied to these metrics to derive the direct user benefits. (Examples of unit costs are the vehicle operation expenditures per mile or hour, the value of time per hour, and the costs of accidents per incident, by type.

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  • Business and Functional Managers. The managers responsible for business operations and IT procurement process must take an active role in the risk management process. These managers are the individuals with the authority and responsibility for making the trade-off decisions essential to mission accomplishment. Their involvement in the risk management process enables the achievement of proper security for the IT systems, which, if managed properly, will provide mission effectiveness with a minimal expenditure of resources....

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  • The idea of this book grew out of the awareness of the need for a better answer to the frequent query: "Where can I learn about the psychological problems of cancer patients and how to treat them?" . . . There were many books and journals that an interested reader could turn to, but no summary of the broad range of issues that one needed to know to be informed was available. We began to conceive of a small book that would serve as an introduction to this emerging area of oncology. Using a developmental model, we sought to understand...

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  • While the nature and prevalence of defensive medical practices have been widely debated, most agree that the costs are exorbitant. In fact, some estimates report that the practice of defensive medicine costs the American health care system in excess of $100 billion dollars annually, which would account for up to 12% of all health care expenditures.

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  • Dental caries is a common childhood problem. It is five times more prevalent than asthma. Although dental caries is preventable, almost 28 percent of children aged two to five years experience the disease (21). A virulent form of dental caries in children younger than six is generally defined as early childhood caries (ECC). Because management of these children in dental offices is difficult, treatment is often rendered in operating rooms, increasing the cost of care. Furthermore, there is a high rate of relapse of caries in these children.

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  • Saccharomyces cerevisiaeis known to be able to adapt to the presence of the commonly used food preservative benzoic acid with a large energy expenditure. Some mechanisms for the adaptation process have been sug-gested, but its quantitative energetic and metabolic aspects have rarely been discussed.

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  • The story is a bit different with the expenditure-driven adjustments. In five of the ten adjustments for which there is data, the output gap was more than one percentage point of GDP at the beginning of the adjustment. In four of these five cases the gap was more than two percentage points of GDP, as shown in Figure 5. These four cases were Finland (1996-2000), Netherlands (1996), Norway (1994-95), and Sweden (1994-98). However, in none of these cases was an economy as far below its potential as the United States economy in 2010. The biggest output gap among this...

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  • Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a speci®c marker of multilocular brown adipocytes. Ectopic UCP1 in white fat of aP2-Ucp1micemitigates development of obesity byboth, increasing energy expenditure anddecreasingin situ lipogenesis. In order to further analyse consequences of respiratory uncoupling inwhite fat, the e€ects of the ectopic UCP1 on the morphology of adipocytes and biogenesis of mitochondria in these cells were studied.

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  • Several figures in this primer show the cumulative percent change in private health insurance or health insurance premiums (Figures 11, 15, and 20). These cumulative increases may vary from figure to figure because different years are used, the data sources differ, and what is being measured varies.

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  • Schoder and Zweifel Health Economics Review 2011, 1:2 http://www.healtheconomicsreview.com/content/1/1/2 RESEARCH Open Access Flat-of-the-curve medicine: a new perspective on the production of health Johannes Schoder* and Peter Zweifel Abstract Health economists have studied the determinants of the expected value of health status as a function of medical and non-medical inputs, often finding small marginal effects of the former. However, medical inputs may have an additional benefit in the form of a reduced variability of health status.

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  • Most health care spending is for care provided by hospitals and physicians. Health care spending encompasses a wide variety of health-related goods and services, from hospital care and prescription drugs to dental services and medical equipment purchases. Figure 7 illustrates spending on health by type of expense in 2010. Spending on hospital care and physician services ($1,329.5 billion combined) makes up just over one-half of health care expenditures (51%). While spending on prescription drugs ($259.

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  • Third, the demand for medical goods has increased. Consumer expenditure on these goods more than doubled between 1982 and 1986 and by 1990 had reached nearly seven times the 1982 level. Hospital and general practitioner fees are paid by the state in China, so this growth in consumer spending suggests that the people are paying increased attention to their health, and have begun to buy expensive health-related products. As a result of higher incomes, dramatic changes in the Chinese lifestyle are occurring.

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  • Energy balance and pathophysiology of weight loss. Food intake may be influenced by a wide variety of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli as well as by genetic, psychological, and social factors. Absorption may be impaired because of pancreatic insufficiency, cholestasis, celiac sprue, intestinal tumors, radiation injury, inflammatory bowel disease, infection, or medication effect. These disease processes may be manifest as changes in stool frequency and consistency. Calories may also be lost due to vomiting or diarrhea, glucosuria in diabetes mellitus, or fistulous drainage.

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  • With increasing recognition of the environmental impact of food and drink, future food policy and dietary advice need to go beyond the traditional focus on nutrient recommendations for health to include wider issues of sustainability. The task should not be underestimated, not least because the issue of sustainability is complex with multiple dimensions, including environmental, economic and social aspects. Current dietary advice is based on nutrient recommendations for health.

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  • The law increases overall funding for community health centers by $11 billion over five years, starting in 2011. Of this, $9.5 billion will allow health centers to expand their operational capacity to enhance their medical, oral, and behavioral health services and $1.5 billion will fund expansion through capital expenditures. In doing so, the law helps community health centers provide comprehensive primary care to medically underserved populations—the target populations of community health centers—including low-income, poor, uninsured, migrant and immigrant communities....

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