The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is
an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasingly
technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice
in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement
academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation
of such a programme for nuclear medicine.
This document is historic for two major reasons. First, it represents the
first jointly authorized publication by both American Association of
Medical Physicists (AAPM) and American College of Medical Physics
(ACMP). This document began as a 1991 ACMP report. In 1997 the
General Medical Physics committee of AAPM invited Dr. Brahmavar,
who authored the original report, to chair a task group to rewrite and
update the document as an AAPM task group report. As it neared
completion, there was a suggestion that perhaps ACMP would be
interested in supporting the revised document.
The British Medical Association
Superior vena cava Aorta Left main coronary artery Left circumflex artery Pulmonary veins Right main coronary artery Left anterior descending artery Coronary vein Inferior vena cava Descending aorta
coronary Any structure that encircles like a crown. The term usually refers to the coronary arteries encircling the heart. It is also sometimes used as a nonmedical term for a heart attack (see myocardial infarction).
This book is intended as a textbook for a course in radiation physics in aca-demic medical physics graduate programs. The book may also be of interestto the large number of professionals, not only physicists, who in their dailyoccupations deal with various aspects of medical physics and have a need toimprove their understanding of radiation physics.Medical physics is a rapidly growing specialty of physics, concerned withthe application of physics to medicine mainly, but not exclusively, in the ap-plication of ionizing radiation to diagnosis and treatment of human disease...
The purpose of this document is to provide hospitals and the Joint
Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals Organization (JCAHO) a
guide prepared by medical physicists recommending tests and proce-
dures for medical lasers to maintain a high level of quality care in a safe
environment. The guidance for safe use of laser systems for diagnosis
and therapy is intended for use by all health care personnel associated
with laser systems’ operation (physicians, nurses, medical physicists),
maintenance (engineers), and service (biomedical technicians).
Whilst studying for Finals it was hardly believable the number of
textbooks, notes, lectures and other resources that were available
to satiate even the most demanding of student. An unhealthy culture
of panic buying was almost encouraged, such was the vast
amount of information that was expected and required.
However, with such an impressive armament at our fingertips it
seemed illogical that there were few avenues for those diligent (or
just plain lucky) enough to have accrued sufficient knowledge to
want to put it to the test.
In 1976, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) published brief guidelines for the investigation, diagnostic evaluation, and
medical treatment of TB contacts. Although investigation of contacts and treatment of infected contacts is an important component
of the U.S. strategy for TB elimination, second in priority to treatment of persons with TB disease, national guidelines have
not been updated since 1976.
During development, cells and tissues undergo dynamic changes in pattern
and form that employ a wider range of physical mechanisms than at any other
time during an organism’s life. Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo presents
a framework within which physics can be used to analyze these biological
Written to be accessible to both biologists and physicists, major stages
and components of biological development are introduced and then analyzed
from the viewpoint of physics. The presentation of physical models requires no
mathematics beyond basic calculus.
This course of lectures is devoted to protein physics, i.e., to the overall topics of
structure, self-organization and function of protein molecules.
The course is based on lectures given by us (earlier by O.B.P., and later by A.V.F.)
first at Moscow PhysTech Institute and then at Pushchino State University and the
Pushchino Branch of MoscowState University. Initially, our students were physicists,
then mainly biologists with some chemists.
The stigma of HIV often exacerbates this
situation because when men die women are
easily blamed for bringing HIV into the
household, no matter if it is true or not. In
Zambia, women working with Huairou
member organization Katuba Women’s
Association reported being chased out of the
home after their husband’s death, as they
were blamed for bringing the disease into the
home, despite the husbands’ known
infidelities that led to the disease.
Against this backdrop, the Vienna Policy Dialogue in preparation of the 2014 Development Cooperation Forum (DCF) will
explore how to firmly position gender equality and the empowerment of women and the protection of their rights in the
changing landscape of international development cooperation and in the evolving post-2015 UN development agenda.
A long-term care insurance scheme, similar in nature to other social insurance systems in
Germany (pension, employment and health insurance), was introduced by the German
Parliament in 1994.
All employees earning less than the social security earnings ceiling
(Pflichtversicherungsgrenze) for the German social insurance system (3,937.50 euros per
month in 2006) are members of this system.
In the vascular system, estrogen and serotonin have been
shown to individually alter clotting, cholesterol, vasocon-
striction, and heart attacks. Both high and low levels of E2
have been associated with increased risk of thromboem-
bolism; high levels result in increased clot formation,
while low levels result in slower clot breakdown. Unusu-
ally high concentrations of estrogen (beyond normal
physiological levels) directly increase the likelihood of
clotting by increasing production of clotting factors VII
through X in the liver .
A marketing plan is essential for every horticultural business and for efficient and
effective marketing of any horticultural product or service. A marketing plan serves as a
road map. It establishes objectives, recommended actions, and timing for achieving the
objectives. An understanding of the marketing planning process is also a valuable aid in
helping managers organize their thinking about the marketing process and the various
methods and procedures used. A strategic marketing plan takes into account the market
environment facing the business (e.g.
A novel theoretical development in recent years is the analysis of the
consequences of stereotyped reasoning or statistical discrimination (see
Phelps , and Arrow ). This analysis suggests that the beliefs of
employers, teachers, and other influential groups that minority members
are less productive can be self-fulfilling, for these beliefs may cause minor-
ities to underinvest in education, training, and work skills, such as punctual-
ity. The underinvestment does make them less productive (see a good recent
analysis by Loury )....
Indian legislation covers patents, copyrights, trademarks, geographical indicators and industrial
designs. The Patent Act 1970 has been amended several times to meet India’s commitments to
the WTO, such as increasing the term of a patent to 20 years.
Trademarks can be registered under the Trade Marks Act, 1999, which provides for registration
of trademark for services in addition to goods, simplifies procedures, increases the registration
period to 10 years and provides a six-month grace period for the payment of renewal fees.
Age-related hearing loss or presbycusis is mainly caused by changes in the inner ear. However, your genes and loud noises (such as from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. Initially there is difficulty in hearing high-frequency sounds, such as someone talking. As hearing gets worse, it may become difficult to hear sounds at lower pitches. Hearing aids Telephone amplifiers and other assistive devices may be helpful. A cochlear implant (Surgery) may be recommended for certain women with very severe hearing loss.
The socialist fiscal system was implicit in the vertical structure of planning and
prices. In the Soviet Union, virtually all investment activity was channeled through the
budget. The primary nominal sources of tax revenue were enterprise profits and resource
rents, turnover taxes charged on the difference between retail prices of consumer goods
and their nominal enterprise cost, and profits of a foreign trade monopoly.
Disagreements involving environmental priorities and strategic approaches, and balancing the
relative roles of compliance assistance with enforcement, contribute to the complexity and
friction that come with enforcing national pollution control laws. Other contributing factors
include the increasing number of statutory and related regulatory pollution control requirements
(some with conflicting mandates) and the adequacy of the resources available for their
In 2002, methodological issues around time series analyses of air pollution and health attracted
the attention of the scienti¯c community, policy makers, the press, and the diverse stakeholders con-
cerned with air pollution.