This paper outlines the development of the sociological study of medical
autonomy and how recent reforms in medical regulation in the United Kingdom
illustrate how medical elites are proactively introducing formal performance
surveillance and appraisal mechanisms and processes within medical training as
they respond to challenges to traditional professional self-regulatory privileges,
such as greater state, inter-professional and non-medical involvement in the
governance of medical expertise.
A diverse set of regulatory approaches and enforcement tools is applied to a sizeable universe of
regulated entities by these multiple regulating authorities to ensure compliance. A general
discussion of enforcement monitoring and response tools is included in this report, followed by a
summary of recent fiscal year federal funding levels for enforcement activities. Discussion of
available enforcement data sources, as well as tables illustrating examples of trends in
enforcement activities, is presented in the two appendixes.
We are very pleased to launch the 23rd edition of
Review of Medical Physiology
. The current authors have attempted
to maintain the highest standards of excellence, accuracy,
and pedagogy developed by Fran Ganong over the 46
years in which he educated countless students worldwide
with this textbook.
At the same time, we have been attuned to the evolving
needs of both students and professors in medical physiology.
Increasingly consumer pull for drugs is being created indirectly also by Internet promotion, and perhaps more questionably by partnerships with patient support groups.
The impact of the Internet
Consumers are able to purchase all kinds of prescription drugs online often without need for a prior prescription. Research conducted by Bloom (1999) showed that most Internet pharmacies provide poor quality information, fail to have adequate safeguards to ensure medicines are dispensed correctly, and also charge more for both products and services.
This book examines general changes in the regulation of the health professions in
the United Kingdom from a social scientific perspective. It also considers the
historical and contemporary development of regulation for a selection of key
occupational groups in this context, with reference to wider debates about the
health professions. Interest in new approaches to regulation was prompted by the
fact that, by the late 1990s, a number of important shifts were taking place in relation
to such groups in this country. These included the following trends.
Akt regulates various cellular processes, including cell growth, survival, and metabolism. Recently, Akt's role in neurite outgrowth has also emerged. We thus aimed to identify neuronal function-related genes that are regulated by Akt. Methods: We performed suppression subtractive hybridization on two previously established PC12 sublines, one of which overexpresses the wild-type (WT) form and the other, the dominant-negative (DN) form of Akt. These sublines respond differently to NGF's neuronal differentiation effect. Results: A...
The human lmo2 gene plays important roles in hematopoiesis and is associated with acute T lymphocyte leukemia. The gene encodes two protein isoforms, a longer form LMO2-L and a shorter form LMO2-S. Both isoforms function as bridge molecules to assemble their partners together to regulate their target genes. A typical LMO2 binding site consists of two elements, a GATA site and an E-box, with an interval of 9~12 bp. Methods: In this study, the combination of MBP pulldown assay and mammalian two hybrid assay were...
The second edition of Safety Evaluation of Medical Devices continues to focus
on the objective of the first edition—to serve as a single-volume practical guide
for those who are responsible for or concerned with ensuring safety in the use
and manufacture of medical devices. It benefits from recognition of the limitations
and shortcomings of the previous edition, and also reflects the changes in
regulations, science, and the marketplace.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by
binding to target mRNAs in a sequence-specific manner. A large number
of genes appear to be the target of miRNAs, and an essential role for
miRNAs in the regulation of various conserved cell signaling cascades,
such as mitogen-activated protein kinase, Notch and Hedgehog
The level of intracellular proteins is mainly regulated through modifications
by ubiquitin ligases that target them for degradation. Members of the
NEDD4 family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, such as Itch (atrophin-1 interacting
protein 4), possess up to four WW domains for specific association with
PY motif-containing substrates.
We have shown that hormone-induced downregulation of luteinizing hor-mone receptor (LHR) in the ovary is post-transcriptionally regulated by an
mRNA binding protein. This protein, later identified as mevalonate kinase
(MVK), binds to the coding region of LHR mRNA, suppresses its transla-tion, and the resulting ribonucleoprotein complex is targeted for degrada-tion.
The unstructured N-terminal domain of the transcriptional cofactor PC4
contains multiple phosphorylation sites that regulate activity. The phos-phorylation status differentially influences the various biochemical func-tions performed by the structured core of PC4. Binding to ssDNA is
slightly enhanced by phosphorylation of one serine residue, which is not
augmented by further phosphorylation.
Page The Authors Foreword David G. Green Editor’s Introduction: Regulation, Accountability and Health Care David Gladstone Change in the Governance of Medicine: The Politics of Self-Regulation Brian Salter The General Medical Council and Professional Self-Regulation Meg Stacey Self-Regulation and the Role of the General Medical Council James Johnson An Independent Medical Inspectorate William G. Pickering Notes Index vi
The 5¢ ﬂanking region of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) gene was systematically analysed to provide the basis for understanding the mechanisms which regulate Bsep transcription. In addition substrates and drugs were investigated for their ability to alter Bsep promoter activity. Bsep promoter function was restricted to hepatocyte derived HepG2 cells. The 5¢ deletional analysis revealed a biphasic shape of reporter gene activities, indicating a suppressive element between nucleotides )800 and )512. ...
Penaeidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides constitutively produced and stored in the haemocytes of penaeid shrimp. In response to microbial stimulation, they are released into the blood circulation and they further attach to shrimp cuticle surfaces through a chitin-binding property. In the present paper, we have analysed their expression, regulation and distribution in shrimp tissues in response to experimental microbial challenge.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành y học tạp chí Medical Sciences dành cho các bạn sinh viên ngành y tham khảo đề tài: IGF-1 regulates cAMP levels in astrocytes through a β2-adrenergic receptor-dependant mechanism...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành y học tạp chí Medical Sciences dành cho các bạn sinh viên ngành y tham khảo đề tài: Controlling Osteogenesis and Adipogenesis of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells by Regulating A Circadian Clock Protein with Laser Irradiation...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành y học tạp chí Medical Sciences dành cho các bạn sinh viên ngành y tham khảo đề tài: HLA-DR regulation and the influence of GM-CSF on transcription, surface expression and shedding...
As the origin of a life-and-death signal detected from systemic arterial pressure, which sequentially increases (pro-life) and decreases (pro-death) to reflect progressive dysfunction of central cardiovascular regulation during the advancement towards brain stem death in critically ill patients, the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a suitable neural substrate for mechanistic delineation of this fatal phenomenon.
Abstract Intercellular signaling by cytokines is a vital feature of the innate immune system. In skin, an inflammatory response is mediated by cytokines and an entwined network of cellular communication between T-cells and epidermal keratinocytes. Dysregulated cytokine production, orchestrated by activated T-cells homing to the skin, is believed to be the main cause of psoriasis, a common inflammatory skin disorder.