Medicinal products

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  • When a new veterinary medicinal product is launched into widespread use, adverse drug reactions may become apparent. These may be seen in the treated animal patients, in exposed users or as adverse effects on the environment. Additionally, they may manifest as excess residues of the drug in food of animal origin. As a consequence, legislation and regulatory approaches have developed across the globe to address these issues and to ensure that the continued safety of these products can be monitored and, where necessary, that regulatory actions can be pursued to assuage any concerns.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Regulation (EC) No 1901/2006 on medicinal products for paediatric use & clinical research in vulnerable populations...

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  • Covering all aspects of botany, ethnology, pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacy, and medicine, this authoritative volume provides comprehensive coverage, presenting all important classes of natural products found in Asia and the Pacific, classified by their mode of action. With illustrations and photographs, each chapter includes figures of plants, concepts, and mechanisms of action. The author also presents cutting-edge research and recent developments in the field.

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  • Herbs and traditional medicines are being extensively used for healthcare in almost all the countries since times immemorial. Ancient religious texts are replete with references on the use of natural products with medicinal properties. Because of local beliefs and practices and also from cost considerations herbal medicines remain a popular mode of treatment in the developing countries. Even in the industrialised society the rising cost of prescription drugs and ensuing side effects of the treatment make it highly attractive to use the traditional medicine particularly for minor ailments....

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  • Book "Milk Production - An Up-to-Date Overview of Animal Nutrition, Management and Health" is organized into three main sections, and is concerned with the animal nutrition, animal management and, breeding and animal health. This book permits the reader's exposure to the expert's experience and scientific style of interpreting and integrating available data into his own views.

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  • Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)1 is now a major part of the healthcare system in all advanced societies.2 It is also a common part of discourse in medicine and healthcare. This growth of interest has only partially been matched by academic study of it. Indeed, over recent years there has been an increasing recognition that CAM is essentially under-researched (House of Lords 2000).

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  • The production of free radicals (ROS) is an unavoidable consequence of life in an aerobic environment. Free radicals produced from the metabolic activities of oxygen attack biological membranes and lipoproteins via oxidation in a process called lipid perioxidation. This attack damages cells and lipids often in a chain reaction with carbon-based molecules such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in a reaction with molecular oxygen. This creates oxidative stress and damage to tissues. Free radicals also damage chromosomal DNA.

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  • Synthetic polymers fulfill many functions in biotechnology and medicine. In cell culture technology and tissue engineering they provide the surfaces to which cells may attach. Cross-linked polymer networks are used for drug delivery and cell encapsulation. Polymer-based porous membranes can be used to shield implanted cells from the immune system of the host, while allowing for the exchange of nutrients and metabolic waste products thus keeping the cells alive and functioning.

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  • Alternative medicine is recognized as medical products and practices that do not belong to the standard cares taken by medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy and allied health professionals. Alternative medicine includes the mind-body interventions (i.e., meditation, yoga, acupuncture, deep-breathing exercises, guided imageryAny of various techniques (such as a series of verbal suggestions) used to guide another person or oneself in imagining sensations— especially in visualizing an image in the mind—to bring about a desired physical response (such as stress reduction).

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  • This book was written to provide accurate and helpful information about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The term CAM refers broadly to medical approaches, such as acupuncture or herbal medicine, that are not typical components of conventional medicine. Despite the fact that the majority of people with MS appear to use CAM, it may be difficult to find reliable information about the relevance and usefulness of these therapies in MS.

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  • Other Diseases The power and versatility of gene transfer approaches are such that there are few serious disease entities for which gene transfer therapies are not under development. Besides those already discussed, other areas of interest include gene therapies for HIV and for neurodegenerative disorders.

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  • The history, culture and community values of East Africans are embedded in agriculture. It is the most important source of livelihoods for millions of East Africans. The sustainable management of the agriculture production process is therefore crucial if livelihoods are to be sustained. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system, which promotes and enhances agro- ecosystem health, including bio-diversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity.

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  • Organic milk production systems rely on ecologically based practices that virtually prohibit the use of antibiotics and hormones in the cow herd and the use of synthetic chemicals in the production of cattle feed. Organic milk production systems also attempt to accommodate the animals’ natural nutritional and behavioral requirements, for example ensuring that dairy cows have access to pasture (Greene and Kremen).

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  • The rise of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) – a whole array of practices, products and approaches to health and illness1 – can certainly no longer be characterised as cultural fad or fashion. Changes in the use of titles (from ‘unscientific’ and ‘marginal’ to ‘complementary’ and ‘integrative’) reflect a more substantive relocation and transformation of many of these medicines from the fringe to the mainstream of both community and professional health-care discourse and practice (Tovey et al. 2004).

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  • Because agricultural production is seasonal, the products have to be stored for distribution later. The storage function involves risks -- risks of deterioration of products and risks of fluctuating market prices. Elaborate precautions are taken to guard against any deterioration of products from excessive moisture, heat, contaminating metals, bacteria and fungi, insects, and rodents and against loss from fire and theft.

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  • The study on which this book reports was jointly commissioned by the World Bank and the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) in 2005 to assess the extent to which member countries of ARIPO have utilized the flexibilities of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement to improve access to HIV/AIDS medicines. The study benefited from interviews with a number of policy makers, manufacturers, and national drug regulatory authorities in Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe.

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  • Dalton et al. reported the average production costs and returns for 2004 from a sample of 30 organic dairy farms in Vermont and Maine. They reported a total cost for organic milk production of $22.58 per cwt, before a deduction for unpaid operator labor and management, which was not significantly different from milk revenues. Thus organic milk production did not generate any return to unpaid labor and management nor did it produce a positive return to farm assets or equity.

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  • Glyoxal is a key compound involved in glyoxal oxidase (GLOX)-dependent production of glyoxylate, oxalate and H2O2 by lignin-degrading basidiomycetes. In this paper, we report that glyoxal was produced from a metabolite of ligninolytic fungi, linoleic acid, by manganese peroxidase (MnP)-dependent lipid peroxidation. In the absence of the parent substrate of linoleic acid, the dialdehyde was oxidized by MnP and Mn(III) chelate to start free radical reactions with emission of chemiluminescence at 700– 710 nm. ...

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  • Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been famously characterized by David Sackett as the “conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about individual care.” The central notion in EBM of the importance of integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external evidence provides a helpful framework for providers navigating the uncertainty inherent in patient care.

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  • The appropriate time to start contraception depends on the contraceptive method and may also depend on medical and social factors. Traditionally, initiation of hormonal and intrauterine methods of contraception has been delayed until the onset of the next menstrual period in order to avoid inadvertent use during pregnancy. Starting early in the cycle also avoids the need for additional contraception. The manufacturers’ Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) vary in their advice on contraceptive start dates and the need for additional contraception.

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