Since there are often several contributing causes of high prices and poor availability, a single
policy response is unlikely to be sufficient. In order to effect real change and maximize
impact, a comprehensive package of policy reforms, fully implemented and rigorously
enforced, is usually needed. Monitoring the impact of policy reforms is vital, especially as all
policies can have unintended effects.
In addition to affecting air quality and natural environmental degradation, transportation
can also play a key role in the degradation of urban environments. The delays and frustrations
caused by urban traffic congestion can reduce human productivity and quality of life, thus
possibly reducing the potential gross domestic or gross regional product. The noise produced by
various types of motor vehicles, as well as the excessive use of horns–a fact of life in cities in
many developing countries–raises the level of ambient noise, increases stress and reduces the
quality of life.
Most formal modelling in the past has used as a starting point a scenario of 2-3°C
warming. In this temperature range, the cost of climate change could be equivalent to
a permanent loss of around 0-3% in global world output compared with what could
have been achieved in a world without climate change. Developing countries will
suffer even higher costs.
However, those earlier models were too optimistic about warming: more recent
evidence indicates that temperature changes resulting from BAU trends in emissions
may exceed 2-3°C by the end of this century.
Butler attributed the primary cost differences between organic and conventional operations to
reduced milk production, slightly higher feed and labor costs, and significantly higher herd
replacement and transition costs. Herd replacement costs were significantly higher for organic
producers because replacement heifers must be raised organically, or must be purchased from
organic heifer breeders.
Also, since most job holders do useful work, job creation is tied to wealth creation—for
the simple reason that when more people are put to work, more work gets done. This
point requires a bit of explaining, as an exception comes to mind right away. Certainly it
is possible for a given company to get more work done without adding jobs, or even
while eliminating jobs. That is called raising productivity, and we as a society are
constantly coming up with ways to raise productivity.
For instance, this paper you are reading did not need to be...
In most countries, high medicine prices are a consequence of high prices charged by
manufacturers and/or high add-ons in the supply chain, such as wholesale and retail
margins and government-imposed duties and taxes. Both of these factors, acting either
singly or in combination, can substantially increase the final price of medicines to patients
in both the public and private sectors. In the limited number of low- and middle-income
countries for which data are available, private sector wholesale mark-ups range from 2% to
380%, whereas retail mark-ups range from 10% to 552% (4).
There are different naming systems for the species and ingredients used. This guide
documents the common (English) name, scientific (Latin) name, Chinese character,
Chinese pinyin and Roman. Pinyin is the phonetic translation of Chinese characters and
Roman text is the traditional pharmaceutical name given to the ingredients. Both pinyin
and Roman are often used on traditional medicinal packaging in addition to the Chinese
characters. In the tables the order of the ingredients is listed by common name (e.g. bear).
Now, under homogeneity these expectations of others’ expectations collapsed into single, shared,
objectively determined expectations. Under heterogeneity, however, not only is there no objective means
by which others’ dividend expectations can be known, but attempts to eliminate the other unknowns, the
price expectations, merely lead to the repeated iteration of subjective expectations of subjective
expectations (or equivalently, subjective priors on others’ subjective priors)—an infinite regress in
The use of contraception increases with increasing education. Sixty percent of women with at least some secondary education use a contraceptive method, in contrast to 43 percent of women with no education. In general, women do not begin to use contraception until they have had at least one child. Fifty-two percent of women currently in union with three or four children are currently using a modern method of contraception.
The use of modern methods among women currently in union peaks between age 25-39 (50-52 percent).
High medicine prices increase the cost of treatment. For example, treatment of
an adult respiratory infection with a 7-day course of treatment with ciprofloxacin
would cost the lowest-paid government worker over a day’s wage in most countries.
Costs escalate when originator brands are used: the same treatment would cost the
lowest-paid unskilled government worker over 10 days’ wages in the majority of the
countries studied; in Armenia and Kenya, over a month’s salary would be needed to
purchase this treatment.
To address some of the challenges described above, the WHO/HAI Project on Medicine
Prices and Availability has initiated a set of activities to strengthen policy guidance on
issues relating to medicine prices, availability and affordability, with a specific focus on the
needs of low- and middle-income countries. These include a series of in-depth reviews on
policies and other interventions to manage medicine prices, increase availability and make
medicines more affordable.
When the price of Ginseng advanced some years ago hundreds engaged in the business who knew little or
nothing of farming, plant raising and horticulture. That they largely failed is not to be wondered at. Later
many began in a small way and succeeded. Many of these were farmers and gardeners. Others were men who
had hunted, trapped and gathered "seng" from boyhood. They therefore knew something of the peculiarities of
It is from the experience of these men that this work is largely made up--writings of those who are in the
Investor base: participation by different investors in the government bond market has grown
more diversified. Of the various actors in this market, banks tend to invest in relatively
shorter term bonds to match their short-term liability. Pension funds and insurance
companies prefer hedging long-term inflation risks by investing more in inflation linked
bonds. Non-residents concentrate their direct exposure to fixed rate instruments, but with
maturity less than 3 years.
Stroke is a vascular disease for which mortality and morbidity are relatively
well-documented because most stroke victims are admitted to hospitals. Trends in
stroke mortality, incidence, and prevalence are somewhat similar to those for other
cardiovascular conditions. Stroke mortality has been decreasing since the 1960s,
but without a consistent decrease in stroke incidence. Stroke incidence has even
been reported to have been higher in the 1980s than during the 1970s, and there
was no sustained decline in incidence during the 1990s....
The old saying, “You can’t get fired for hiring IBM” just isn’t valid anymore. These
days, clients choose the best consultants, not the best-known ones. Today’s clients
seek talent, not firm names. The competition for new work is not between firms, but
between people and their ideas.
Consultants’ marketing efforts haven’t changed in response to this reality. In fact, their
marketing hasn’t changed much in decades—except to get slicker, flashier and more
That’s not working.
As an advanced representation system, the cinema poses questions of the ways the
unconscious (formed by the dominant order) structures ways of seeing and pleasure
in looking. Cinema has changed over the last few decades. It is no longer the
monolithic system based on large capital investment exemplified at its best by
Hollywood in the 1930's, 1940's and 1950's. Technological advances (16mm, etc)
have changed the economic conditions of cinematic production, which can now be
artisanal as well as capitalist. Thus it has been possible for an alternative cinema to
Thus, for a node x of depth d, it takes d tuples that fall
within an ERD to be produced before the ERD reaches
node x. Note that these d tuple productions do not have to
be consecutive as long as the matching ERD that diffuses
to node x does not get removed from the ERD cache of its
ancestor nodes on its way. Further, note that despite the
fact that it takes d tuples before node x receives the ERD,
these tuples get forwarded fewer and fewer times while the
ERD gets closer and closer to x. In...
Many people have a desire to ride a camel. A few actually own pet riding camels. Some
want to ride for a brief period only and others to caravan overnight into the desert and
experience a little camel culture. The senior author himself enjoyed a few camel rides and
the longest very comfortable ride was 60 km through a desert in two days. Camel riding
can be witnessed in Central Australia and in the deserts of Cholistan, Tharparkar,
Rajisthan and on the beach in Karachi where beautifully decorated camels make their
riders believe that camel ride is no less...
We are pleased to present the Tenth Edition of Veterinary
Medicine, 45 years since the first'Blood and Henderson' Veterinary
Medicine was published in 1960. Because the demand for this
book continues undiminished, we assume that we have a
philosophy, a format and a price that is attractive and meets the
demands of undergraduate veterinary students and graduate
veterinarians working in the field of large-animal medicine. For
this edition, Significant changes were needed to keep up to date
with the increasingly rapid expansion of knowledge about the
diseases of large animals.
The contribution to GDP growth can be hardly differentiated between countries
and sectors, therefore we simply summarize our average estimates to the European
countries. As shown in Table 1, the range is between 0.05% in the short run under
slow adoption and 0.3% in the medium run under fast adoption of cloud comput-