In this second edition of Veterinary Emergency Medicine Secrets we have updated the chapters
from the first edition and added some new chapters based on new interests and involvement
of emergency veterinarians. This question-and-answer format continues to be a useful means of
offering information about veterinary emergency medicine. The stimuli for new questions and
answers have come from readers of the first edition, students in the arena of emergency and critical
care medicine, veterinary nurses and technicians, and chapter authors.
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a complex macromolecular machin-ery employed by a number of Gram-negative species to initiate infection.
Toxins secreted through the system are synthesized in the bacterial cyto-plasm and utilize the T3SS to pass through both bacterial membranes and
the periplasm, thus being introduced directly into the eukaryotic cytoplasm.
At the beginning of the 21st century, medicine is increasingly
based on understanding the functions of genes and the molecular
mechanisms of diseases. In pancreatology, the understanding
of functions and dysfunctions of the exocrine and
endocrine pancreas is derived from molecular biological data
on the actions of compounds in subcellular compartments and
intracellular transcription pathways.
Bacillusspecies are valuable producers of industrial enzymes and biophar-maceuticals, because they can secrete large quantities of high-quality pro-teins directly into the growth medium. This requires the concerted action
of quality control factors, such as folding catalysts and ‘cleaning proteases’.
We report the secreted expression byPichia pastorisof two human lyso-zyme variants F57I and W64R, associated with systemic amyloid disease,
and describe their characterization by biophysical methods. Both variants
have a substantially decreased thermostability compared with wild-type
human lysozyme, a finding that suggests an explanation for their increased
propensity to form fibrillar aggregates and generate disease.
Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are macromolecular assemblies used by
bacteria to transport material across their membranes. T4SS are generally
composed of a set of twelve proteins (VirB1–11 and VirD4). This repre-sents a dynamic machine powered by three ATPases.
MicroRNA mir-9 is speculated to be involved in insulin secretion because
of its ability to regulate exocytosis. Sirt1 is an NAD-dependent protein
deacetylase and a critical factor in the modulation of cellular responses to
altered metabolic flux. It has also been shown recently to control insulin
secretion from pancreaticb-islets.
Why write another reference text on internal medicine? Simply, we wanted
to provide the reader with a quick reference to find the essentials of canine
internal medicine. These are the same topics and facts that are discussed
during rounds and that appear on examinations, including board
This book, which we hope is a useful learning tool for students, will also
be a vital reference for the practicing clinician. The book contains a great
deal of clinical information that can be applied on a daily basis. It is not
meant to replace the detail provided in reference textbooks.
The Gram-negative bacterium Lysobacter sp. XL1 secretes various
proteins, including bacteriolytic enzymes (L1–L5), into the culture medium.
These proteins are able to degrade Gram-positive bacteria. The mechanism
of secretion of extracellular proteins byLysobactersp. XL1 has not been
Type III secretion systems of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria allow the
injection of effector proteins into the cytosol of host eukaryotic cells. Cros-sing of the eukaryotic plasma membrane is facilitated by a translocon, an
oligomeric structure made up of two bacterial proteins inserted into the
host membrane during infection.
CCN4⁄Wnt-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP1) is one of the CCN
(CTGF⁄Cyr61⁄Nov) family proteins. CCN members have typical structures
composed of four conserved cysteine-rich modules and their variants lack-ing certain modules, generated by alternative splicing or gene mutations,
have been described in various pathological conditions.
Bacterial infections at epithelial surfaces, such as those that line the gut
and the lung, stimulate the migration of neutrophils through the co-ordi-nated actions of chemoattractants secreted from pathogen-stimulated epi-thelial cells. One such factor involved in attracting polymorphonuclear
leukocytes across the epithelium and into the lumen has until recently
A homology search of the genome database of the filamentous fungus
Trichoderma reeseiidentified a new T. reeseityrosinase gene tyr2, encoding
a protein with a putative signal sequence. The gene was overexpressed
in the native host under the strong cbh1 promoter, and the tyrosinase
enzyme was secreted into the culture supernatant.
The C-terminal t peptide (40 residues) of vertebrate acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) T subunits possesses a series of seven
conserved aromatic residues and forms an amphiphilic
a-helix; it allows the formation of homo-oligomers (mono-mers, dimers and tetramers) and heteromeric associations
with the anchoringproteins, ColQ and PRiMA, which
contain a proline-rich motif (PRAD). We analyzed the
influenceofmutations in the t peptideofTorpedoAChETon
oligomerization and secretion.
Most of the examples of protein translocation across a
membrane (such as the import of classical secretory proteins
into the endoplasmic reticulum, import of proteins into
mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as protein import
into and export from the nucleus), are understood in great
Pathogenicity ofMycobacterium tuberculosisis closely rela-ted to its ability to survive and replicate in the hostile envi-ronment of macrophages. For some pathogenic bacteria,
secretion of ATP-utilizing enzymes into the extracellular
environment aids in pathogen survival via P2Z receptor-mediated, ATP-induced death of infected macrophages. A
component of these enzymes is nucleoside diphosphate
kinase (Ndk). Thendkgenewas cloned fromM. tuberculosis
H37Rv and expressed inEscherichia coli.
MFG-E8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a peripheral membrane glycoprotein, which is expressed abundantly in lactating mammary glands and is secreted in association with fat globules. This protein consists of two-repeated EGF-like domains, a mucin-like domain and two-repeated discoidinlike domains (C-domains), and contains an integrin-binding motif (RGD sequence) in the EGF-like domain. To clarify the role of each domain on the peripheral association with the cell membrane, several domain-deletion mutants of MFG-E8 were expressed in COS-7 cells. ...
In avian species, an egg envelope homologous to the mammalian zona pellucida is called the perivitelline membrane. We have previously reported that one of its components, a glycoprotein homologous to mammalian ZPC, is synthesized in the granulosa cells of the quail ovary. In the present study, we investigated the proteolytic cleavage of the newly synthesized ZPC and the secretion of ZPC from the granulosa cells. Western blot analysis of the cell lysates demonstrated that the 43-kDa protein is the precursor of mature ZPC (proZPC), and is converted to the 35-kDa protein before secretion. ...
At the time of implantation in the maternal uterus, the trophectoderm of the pig blastocyst is the source of a massive secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-c), together with lesser amounts of IFN-d, a unique species of type I IFN. This trophoblastic IFN-c (TrIFN-c) is an unprecedented example of IFN-c being produced spontaneously by an epithelium. We therefore studied some of its structural and biochemical properties, by comparison with pig IFN-c from other sources, either natural LeIFN-c (from adult leucocytes), or recombinant. ...