There is increasing political and environmental pressure on industry to clean up the water which it uses in many processes, and to re-use this water where possible. This cleaning is done using specially-developed industrial membranes and this book covers the types and design of membranes, how they work and in which industries they are used. Special attention is paid to the textile, food/ beverage, pharmaceutical, oil and pulp and paper industries where such membranes are in regular use.
For this book, the term desalination is used in the broadest sense of the removal of
dissolved, suspended, visible and invisible impurities in seawater, brackish water and
wastewater, to make them drinkable, or pure enough for industrial applications like in
the processes for the production of steam, power, pharmaceuticals and microelectronics,
or simply for discharge back into the environment.
Hydrogen, as an energy carrier, is widely regarded as a potential cost effective, renewable, and clean energy alternative to petroleum in order to mitigate energy shortage and global climate warming issues that the world is currently facing. However, storage of hydrogen is a substantial challenge, especially for applications in vehicles with fuel cells that use proton-exchange membranes (PEMs). Therefore, scientific community has started focusing their research activities on developing advanced hydrogen storage materials through nanotechnology. ...