Membrane internalization

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  • In receptor-mediated sorting of soluble protein ligands in the endomem-brane system of eukaryotic cells, three completely different receptor pro-teins for mammalian (mannose 6-phosphate receptor), yeast (Vps10p) and plant cells (vacuolar sorting receptor; VSR) have in common the features of pH-dependent ligand binding and receptor recycling.

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  • International standard ISO 16266 presents about Water quality — Detection and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa — Method by membrane filtration. It includes Normative references, Terms and definitions, Apparatus and glassware.

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  • In 2010, the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia raised the English language proficiency requirement for registration as a nurse to an Overall score of 7.0 in the Academic module of the IELTS Test, with 7.0 in each of the components that comprise the Test. Other professional registration boards have also instituted an IELTS requirement (discussed in Merrifield, 2008). According to information on the IELTS website, as of November 2010, 48 professional associations in Australia identified an IELTS requirement (International English Language Testing System, 2010a).

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 29. Disorders of the Eye The Human Visual System The visual system provides a supremely efficient means for the rapid assimilation of information from the environment to aid in the guidance of behavior. The act of seeing begins with the capture of images focused by the cornea and lens upon a light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye, called the retina. The retina is actually part of the brain, banished to the periphery to serve as a transducer for the conversion of patterns of light energy into neuronal signals.

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  • In the next block processing features to detect a particular event in the case external devices, or to identify, study, and signal the brain to recognize patterns, will be used as input for the following blocks that translate to control command of the external device. Last but not least important, is the block set effects supervision Operative mode of BCI devices under the supervision of users, this is if the device is active in on-line / Off linemode, or if it ismodifying its internal parameters in the learning phase in order to regulate the activity of users....

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  • Red or Painful Eye Corneal Abrasions These are seen best by placing a drop of fluorescein in the eye and looking with the slit lamp using a cobalt-blue light. A penlight with a blue filter will suffice if no slit lamp is available. Damage to the corneal epithelium is revealed by yellow fluorescence of the exposed basement membrane underlying the epithelium. It is important to check for foreign bodies. To search the conjunctival fornices, the lower lid should be pulled down and the upper lid everted.

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  • Water Excretion In contrast to the ingestion of water, its excretion is tightly regulated by physiologic factors. The principal determinant of renal water excretion is arginine vasopressin (AVP; formerly antidiuretic hormone), a polypeptide synthesized in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.

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  • Prognostic Factors The most important prognostic factor is the stage at the time of presentation. Fortunately, most melanomas are diagnosed in clinical stages I and II. The revised American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for melanoma is based on microscopic primary tumor depth (Breslow's thickness), presence of ulceration, evidence of nodal involvement, and presence of metastatic disease to internal sites (Table 83-3). Certain anatomic sites may affect the prognosis.

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  • Management The entire cutaneous surface, including the scalp and mucous membranes, should be examined in each patient. Bright room illumination is important, and a 7x to 10x hand lens is helpful for evaluating variation in pigment pattern. A history of relevant risk factors should be elicited. Any suspicious lesions should be biopsied, evaluated by a specialist, or recorded by chart and/or photography for follow-up. Examination of the lymph nodes and palpation of the abdominal viscera are part of the staging examination for suspected melanoma.

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  • Table 114-1 Examples of Microbial Ligand-Receptor Interactions Microorganism Type of Microbial Ligand Host Receptor Viral Pathogens Influenza virus Hemagglutinin Sialic acid Measles virus Vaccine strain Hemagglutinin CD46/moesin Wild-type strains Hemagglutinin Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) Human herpesvirus type 6 ? CD46 Herpes simplex virus Glycoprotein C Heparan sulfate HIV Surface glycoprotein CD4 and chemokine receptors CXCR4) (CCR5 and Epstein-Barr virus Envelope protein CD21 (=CR2) Adenovirus Fiber protein Coxsackie-adenovirus recepto...

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  • Numerous virus–target cell interactions have been described, and it is now clear that different viruses can use similar host-cell receptors for entry. The list of certain and likely host receptors for viral pathogens is long. Among the host membrane components that can serve as receptors for viruses are sialic acids, gangliosides, glycosaminoglycans, integrins and other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, histocompatibility antigens, and regulators and receptors for complement components.

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  • For over four decades there has been continuous progress in adaptive optics technology, theory, and systems development. Recently there also has been an explosion of applications of adaptive optics throughout the fields of communications and medicine in addition to its original uses in astronomy and beam propagation. This volume is a compilation of research and tutorials from a variety of international authors with expertise in theory, engineering, and technology.

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  • Microbial contamination of drinking-water contributes to disease outbreaks and background rates of disease in developed and developing countries worldwide. Control of waterborne disease is an important element of public health policy and an objective of water suppliers. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.

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  • Ear anatomy. A. Drawing of modified coronal section through external ear and temporal bone, with structures of the middle and inner ear demonstrated. B. High-resolution view of inner ear. Stereocilia of the hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the basilar membrane, are in contact with the tectorial membrane and are deformed by the traveling wave. A point of maximal displacement of the basilar membrane is determined by the frequency of the stimulating tone. High-frequency tones cause maximal displacement of the basilar membrane near the base of the cochlea.

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  • Lichen Planus Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous disorder that may affect the skin, scalp, nails, and mucous membranes. The primary cutaneous lesions are pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped, violaceous papules. Close examination of the surface of these papules often reveals a network of gray lines (Wickham's striae). The skin lesions may occur anywhere but have a predilection for the wrists, shins, lower back, and genitalia (Fig. 53-5).

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  • Chronic Granulomatous Disease Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a group of disorders of granulocyte and monocyte oxidative metabolism. Although CGD is rare, with an incidence of 1 in 200,000 individuals, it is an important model of defective neutrophil oxidative metabolism. Most often CGD is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait; 30% of patients inherit the disease in an autosomal recessive pattern. Mutations in the genes for the four proteins that assemble at the plasma membrane account for all patients with CGD.

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  • Pain Pain occurs with variable frequency in the cancer patient: 25–50% of patients present with pain at diagnosis, 33% have pain associated with treatment, and 75% have pain with progressive disease. The pain may have several causes. In ~70% of cases, pain is caused by the tumor itself—by invasion of bone, nerves, blood vessels, or mucous membranes or obstruction of a hollow viscus or duct.

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  • PI3K is a heterodimeric lipid kinase that catalyses the conversion of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3), which acts as a plasma membrane docking site for proteins that contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. These include the serine/threonine kinases Akt and PDK1 that are key downstream effectors of PI3K action (Fig. 80-2). The PI3K pathway is activated in 30–40% of human cancers and is thought to play a critical role in tumor cell survival, proliferation, growth, and glucose utilization.

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  • Abnormalities of the Glycolytic Pathway (Fig. 101-1) Since red cells, in the course of their differentiation, have sacrificed not only their nucleus and their ribosomes but also their mitochondria, they rely exclusively on the anaerobic portion of the glycolytic pathway for producing energy in the form of ATP. Most of the ATP is required by the red cell for cation transport against a concentration gradient across the membrane. If this fails, due to a defect of any of the enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, the result will be hemolytic disease.

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  • The complement system (Chap. 308) consists of a group of serum proteins functioning as a cooperative, self-regulating cascade of enzymes that adhere to— and in some cases disrupt—the surface of invading organisms. Some of these surface-adherent proteins (e.g., C3b) can then act as opsonins for destruction of microbes by phagocytes. The later, "terminal" components (C7, C8, and C9) can directly kill some bacterial invaders (notably, many of the neisseriae) by forming a membrane attack complex and disrupting the integrity of the bacterial membrane, thus causing bacteriolysis.

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