This text is written to all chemical engineering students who are participating in courses about
membrane processes and membrane technology. You are supposed to have the basic skills in
mathematics and chemistry in general. Thus, this text is for students who have completed the basic
engineering introduction courses.
This text gives an introduction to principles behind pressure driven membrane processes. Relevant
theory and models will be presented together with terms widely used in the world of membrane
This handbook emphasizes the use of synthetic membranes for separations
involving industrial or municipal process streams. Little will be said concerning
the use of membranes in medical applications as in artificial kidneys
or for controlled drug release.
Most of the membrane processes are pressure driven. The notable exception
to this is electrodialysis (ED) by which ions are separated under the influence
of an electric field. In addition, the chapter on coupled transport covers
processes which are driven under the influence of a concentration gradient....
There is increasing political and environmental pressure on industry to clean up the water which it uses in many processes, and to re-use this water where possible. This cleaning is done using specially-developed industrial membranes and this book covers the types and design of membranes, how they work and in which industries they are used. Special attention is paid to the textile, food/ beverage, pharmaceutical, oil and pulp and paper industries where such membranes are in regular use.
Reactive liquid-liquid extraction of inorganic acids with amines and effect of solvating
diluents; Liquid extraction of tall oil from wastewaters of paper industry
• Supercritical fluid extraction of natural products; Enzymatic reactions in supercritical
CO2; Solubilities of liquids and solids in dense CO2 with entrainer
• Relation between the morphology and application properties of polymer catalysts and
• Study of the permeation and pervaporation of volatile organic substance (propan-1-ol,
• Observation of the competitive adsorption on Vycor glass membr...
The study of catalytic membranes and membrane reactor processes is a multidisciplinary
activity, which in recent years has attracted the attention of scientists and engineers
in a number of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry and biology, and chemical
and biochemical engineering.
This book is a companion volume to two published in 2011 by INTECH titled “Desalination,
Trends and Technologies” and “Expanding Issues in Desalination”. The term “desalination”
used in this series is in the broadest sense of the removal of dissolved, suspended, visible
and invisible impurities in seawater, brackish water and wastewater.
Most integral membrane proteins are targeted, inserted and assembled in
the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The sequential and potentially over-lapping events necessary for membrane protein integration take place at
sites termed translocons, which comprise a specific set of membrane pro-teins acting in concert with ribosomes and, probably, molecular chaperones
to ensure the success of the whole process.
Matrix metalloprotease-2 is implicated in many biological processes and
degrades extracellular and non-extracellular matrix molecules. Matrix
metalloprotease-2 maintains a latent state through a cysteine–zinc ion
pairing which, when disrupted, results in full enzyme activation. This
pairing can be disrupted by a conformational change or cleavage within
Chapter 5 - The dynamic cell membrane. In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What is the structure of a biological membrane? How is the plasma membrane involved in cell adhesion and recognition? What are the passive processes of membrane transport? How do substances cross membranes against a concentration gradient? How do large molecules enter and leave a cell? What are some other functions of membranes?
Electrochemistry has been undergoing significant transformations in the last few decades. It is now the province of academics interested only in measuring thermodynamic properties of solutions and of industrialists using electrolysis or manufacturing batteries, with a huge gap between them. It has become clear that these, apparently distinct subjects, alongside others, have a common ground and that they have grown towards each other, particularly as a result of research into the rates of electrochemical processes....
As we all know, ceramic materials are inorganic, non-metallic, solid, and inert
materials. Things are made from them by the action of heat and subsequent cooling,
which may be crystalline or partly crystalline. The definition of ceramic is often
restricted to inorganic crystalline materials, as opposed to the noncrystalline glasses,
which involve several steps of the ceramic process, and their mechanical properties
behave similarly to ceramic materials.
Chemical reactions (abiotic reactions) are “classical” chemical reactions that
are not mediated by bacteria. They may include reaction processes such as
precipitation, hydrolysis, complexation, elimination, substitution etc. that
transform chemicals to other chemicals and potentially alter their phase/state
(solid, liquid, gas, dissolved).
Precipitation is the removal of ions from solution by the formation of insoluble
compounds, i.e. a solid-phase precipitate.
Hydrolysis is a process of chemical reaction by the addition of water.
The new edition of Principles of Electrochemistry has been considerably
extended by a number of new sections, particularly dealing with 'electrochemical
material science' (ion and electron conducting polymers, chemically
modified electrodes), photoelectrochemistry, stochastic processes, new aspects
of ion transfer across biological membranes, biosensors, etc. In view of
this extension of the book we asked Dr Ladislav Kavan (the author of the
section on non-electrochemical methods in the first edition) to contribute as
a co-author discussing many of these topics.
The tension structures discussed in this book are predominantly roofing forms created from pre-stressed cable nets, cable trusses, and continuous membranes (fabric structures). A unique feature in their design is form-finding an interactive process of defining the shape of a structure under tension. The book discusses the role of stable minimal surfaces (minimum energy forms occurring in natural objects, such as soap films) in finding optimal shapes of membrane and cable structures.
In the next block processing features to detect a particular event in the case
external devices, or to identify, study, and signal the brain to recognize patterns,
will be used as input for the following blocks that translate to control
command of the external device.
Last but not least important, is the block set effects supervision Operative
mode of BCI devices under the supervision of users, this is if the device is active in on-line
/ Off linemode, or if it ismodifying its internal parameters in the learning phase in order
to regulate the activity of users....
While Nesjar created the sculpture on the green in front of The Art
Museum, he conducted a unique, outdoor seminar. The process
involved building wooden forms to establish the basic shapes of the
columnar pedestal and then a similar structure for the head itself. After
completion of the wooden form, a mixture of crushed stone (imported
from Norway) and iron tie-rods was packed within, and liquid concrete
was injected under pressure from the base up. Nesjar later sandblasted
the outer skin to expose the colorful aggregate.
Sepsis has been defined as a serious condition in which there is a systemic
inflammation secondary to an infectious process. This can progress to a level at which
it results in a complex disorder, leading to multiple organ failure and eventually
death. Although it has been well recognized as one of the top killers worldwide, its
incidence continues to rise dramatically with some studies showing approximately
1,400 daily deaths.
Some experts usually consider sepsis as one of the most challenging conditions
because of its multiple presentations and the variety of its complications. ...
The main objective of this work is to develop an economically viable process
for producing papermaking fibres of adequate quality and generating energy
from wheat straw. Wheat straw was selected as the raw material since wheat is
cultivated and available worldwide (Curtis 2002) and only a minor part of the
straw is used for energy production or animal feed. One of the primary aims in
this work is to find ways to store the raw material chemically between the
harvesting periods and examine the effects on pulping and pulp properties (Paper
IV). In addition, the aim of this work is...
Hydrogen, as an energy carrier, is widely regarded as a potential cost effective, renewable, and clean energy alternative to petroleum in order to mitigate energy shortage and global climate warming issues that the world is currently facing. However, storage of hydrogen is a substantial challenge, especially for applications in vehicles with fuel cells that use proton-exchange membranes (PEMs). Therefore, scientific community has started focusing their research activities on developing advanced hydrogen storage materials through nanotechnology. ...