Membrane processes

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  • This text is written to all chemical engineering students who are participating in courses about membrane processes and membrane technology. You are supposed to have the basic skills in mathematics and chemistry in general. Thus, this text is for students who have completed the basic engineering introduction courses. This text gives an introduction to principles behind pressure driven membrane processes. Relevant theory and models will be presented together with terms widely used in the world of membrane technology. ...

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  • This handbook emphasizes the use of synthetic membranes for separations involving industrial or municipal process streams. Little will be said concerning the use of membranes in medical applications as in artificial kidneys or for controlled drug release. Most of the membrane processes are pressure driven. The notable exception to this is electrodialysis (ED) by which ions are separated under the influence of an electric field. In addition, the chapter on coupled transport covers processes which are driven under the influence of a concentration gradient....

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  • This text is written to all chemical engineering students who are participating in courses about membrane processes and membrane technology.

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  • There is increasing political and environmental pressure on industry to clean up the water which it uses in many processes, and to re-use this water where possible. This cleaning is done using specially-developed industrial membranes and this book covers the types and design of membranes, how they work and in which industries they are used. Special attention is paid to the textile, food/ beverage, pharmaceutical, oil and pulp and paper industries where such membranes are in regular use.

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  • Reactive liquid-liquid extraction of inorganic acids with amines and effect of solvating diluents; Liquid extraction of tall oil from wastewaters of paper industry • Supercritical fluid extraction of natural products; Enzymatic reactions in supercritical CO2; Solubilities of liquids and solids in dense CO2 with entrainer • Relation between the morphology and application properties of polymer catalysts and adsorbents • Study of the permeation and pervaporation of volatile organic substance (propan-1-ol, toluene) • Observation of the competitive adsorption on Vycor glass membr...

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  • The study of catalytic membranes and membrane reactor processes is a multidisciplinary activity, which in recent years has attracted the attention of scientists and engineers in a number of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry and biology, and chemical and biochemical engineering.

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  • This book is a companion volume to two published in 2011 by INTECH titled “Desalination, Trends and Technologies” and “Expanding Issues in Desalination”. The term “desalination” used in this series is in the broadest sense of the removal of dissolved, suspended, visible and invisible impurities in seawater, brackish water and wastewater.

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  • Most integral membrane proteins are targeted, inserted and assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The sequential and potentially over-lapping events necessary for membrane protein integration take place at sites termed translocons, which comprise a specific set of membrane pro-teins acting in concert with ribosomes and, probably, molecular chaperones to ensure the success of the whole process.

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  • Matrix metalloprotease-2 is implicated in many biological processes and degrades extracellular and non-extracellular matrix molecules. Matrix metalloprotease-2 maintains a latent state through a cysteine–zinc ion pairing which, when disrupted, results in full enzyme activation. This pairing can be disrupted by a conformational change or cleavage within the propeptide.

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  • Chapter 5 - The dynamic cell membrane. In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What is the structure of a biological membrane? How is the plasma membrane involved in cell adhesion and recognition? What are the passive processes of membrane transport? How do substances cross membranes against a concentration gradient? How do large molecules enter and leave a cell? What are some other functions of membranes?

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  • Electrochemistry has been undergoing significant transformations in the last few decades. It is now the province of academics interested only in measuring thermodynamic properties of solutions and of industrialists using electrolysis or manufacturing batteries, with a huge gap between them. It has become clear that these, apparently distinct subjects, alongside others, have a common ground and that they have grown towards each other, particularly as a result of research into the rates of electrochemical processes....

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  • As we all know, ceramic materials are inorganic, non-metallic, solid, and inert materials. Things are made from them by the action of heat and subsequent cooling, which may be crystalline or partly crystalline. The definition of ceramic is often restricted to inorganic crystalline materials, as opposed to the noncrystalline glasses, which involve several steps of the ceramic process, and their mechanical properties behave similarly to ceramic materials.

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  • Chemical reactions (abiotic reactions) are “classical” chemical reactions that are not mediated by bacteria. They may include reaction processes such as precipitation, hydrolysis, complexation, elimination, substitution etc. that transform chemicals to other chemicals and potentially alter their phase/state (solid, liquid, gas, dissolved). Precipitation is the removal of ions from solution by the formation of insoluble compounds, i.e. a solid-phase precipitate. Hydrolysis is a process of chemical reaction by the addition of water.

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  • The new edition of Principles of Electrochemistry has been considerably extended by a number of new sections, particularly dealing with 'electrochemical material science' (ion and electron conducting polymers, chemically modified electrodes), photoelectrochemistry, stochastic processes, new aspects of ion transfer across biological membranes, biosensors, etc. In view of this extension of the book we asked Dr Ladislav Kavan (the author of the section on non-electrochemical methods in the first edition) to contribute as a co-author discussing many of these topics.

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  • The tension structures discussed in this book are predominantly roofing forms created from pre-stressed cable nets, cable trusses, and continuous membranes (fabric structures). A unique feature in their design is form-finding an interactive process of defining the shape of a structure under tension. The book discusses the role of stable minimal surfaces (minimum energy forms occurring in natural objects, such as soap films) in finding optimal shapes of membrane and cable structures.

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  • In the next block processing features to detect a particular event in the case external devices, or to identify, study, and signal the brain to recognize patterns, will be used as input for the following blocks that translate to control command of the external device. Last but not least important, is the block set effects supervision Operative mode of BCI devices under the supervision of users, this is if the device is active in on-line / Off linemode, or if it ismodifying its internal parameters in the learning phase in order to regulate the activity of users....

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  • While Nesjar created the sculpture on the green in front of The Art Museum, he conducted a unique, outdoor seminar. The process involved building wooden forms to establish the basic shapes of the columnar pedestal and then a similar structure for the head itself. After completion of the wooden form, a mixture of crushed stone (imported from Norway) and iron tie-rods was packed within, and liquid concrete was injected under pressure from the base up. Nesjar later sandblasted the outer skin to expose the colorful aggregate.

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  • Sepsis has been defined as a serious condition in which there is a systemic inflammation secondary to an infectious process. This can progress to a level at which it results in a complex disorder, leading to multiple organ failure and eventually death. Although it has been well recognized as one of the top killers worldwide, its incidence continues to rise dramatically with some studies showing approximately 1,400 daily deaths. Some experts usually consider sepsis as one of the most challenging conditions because of its multiple presentations and the variety of its complications. ...

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  • The main objective of this work is to develop an economically viable process for producing papermaking fibres of adequate quality and generating energy from wheat straw. Wheat straw was selected as the raw material since wheat is cultivated and available worldwide (Curtis 2002) and only a minor part of the straw is used for energy production or animal feed. One of the primary aims in this work is to find ways to store the raw material chemically between the harvesting periods and examine the effects on pulping and pulp properties (Paper IV). In addition, the aim of this work is...

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  • Hydrogen, as an energy carrier, is widely regarded as a potential cost effective, renewable, and clean energy alternative to petroleum in order to mitigate energy shortage and global climate warming issues that the world is currently facing. However, storage of hydrogen is a substantial challenge, especially for applications in vehicles with fuel cells that use proton-exchange membranes (PEMs). Therefore, scientific community has started focusing their research activities on developing advanced hydrogen storage materials through nanotechnology. ...

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