Background The vast majority of research into solid-state polymer electrolytes for low-temperature (o200 1C) fuel cells has focused on proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (PEMFCs). Recently, there has been interest in the application of the analogous anion-exchange membranes (AEMs), in alkaline forms, in low-temperature fuel cells (Figure 1).
There is increasing political and environmental pressure on industry to clean up the water which it uses in many processes, and to re-use this water where possible. This cleaning is done using specially-developed industrial membranes and this book covers the types and design of membranes, how they work and in which industries they are used. Special attention is paid to the textile, food/ beverage, pharmaceutical, oil and pulp and paper industries where such membranes are in regular use.
My introduction to membranes was as a graduate student in 1963. At that time
membrane permeation was a sub-study of materials science. What is now called
membrane technology did not exist, nor did any large industrial applications
of membranes. Since then, sales of membranes and membrane equipment have
increased more than 100-fold and several tens of millions of square meters of
membrane are produced each year—a membrane industry has been created.
This volume is the first book-length survey of caveolae and lipid rafts. Interest has
developed rapidly in the role of these surface microdomains in such diverse fields
as transmembrane signaling, cell locomotion, vascular relaxation, senescence, and
the uptake and exit from cells of viruses and bacteria. Individual chapters in this
volume cover areas as diverse as the forces that induce and maintain membrane
invaginations, and the clinical relevance of multiprotein complexes at the cell surface,
defects in which are associated with cancer, and Alzheimer’s and prion-dependent
Cell membranes act as barriers to most, but not all, molecules. The development of a cell membrane that could allow some materials to pass while constraining the movement of other molecules was a major step in the evolution of the cell. Cell membranes are differentially (or semi-) permeable barriers separating the inner cellular environment from the outer cellular (or external) environment.
The study of catalytic membranes and membrane reactor processes is a multidisciplinary
activity, which in recent years has attracted the attention of scientists and engineers
in a number of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry and biology, and chemical
and biochemical engineering.
This book is dedicated to the rapidly grown field of microporous ceramic membranes
with separating layers of pore diameter less than 2 nm. In spite of the recent rapid growth
of the research effort directed towards the development of microporous ceramic
membranes the field is still considered to be at its infancy and exhibits a significant future
n the 1990s, a technique was developed to transfer proteins from electro-phoresis gels onto poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) membranes, digest
the proteins on the membranes with proteases such as trypsin and analyze
the resulting peptides on the membranes directly by mass spectrometry to
identify the proteins.
Most integral membrane proteins are targeted, inserted and assembled in
the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The sequential and potentially over-lapping events necessary for membrane protein integration take place at
sites termed translocons, which comprise a specific set of membrane pro-teins acting in concert with ribosomes and, probably, molecular chaperones
to ensure the success of the whole process.
Actinoporins are a family of sea anemone proteins that bind to membranes
and produce functional pores which result in cell lysis. Actinoporin vari-ants with decreased lytic activity usually show a reduced affinity for mem-branes.
The present study aimed to investigate the role played by the leaflets of the
plasma membrane in the uptake of drugs into cells and in their extrusion
by P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. Drug
accumulation was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer
from trimethylammonium-diphenyl-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) located at the
outer leaflet to a rhodamine analog.
I am pleased to have had the opportunity to present an overview of red cell membranes
in normal and disease states with my background of nearly 30 years in this
area of research.
I believe that this kind of publication on red cell membrane is a very timely summary
of all the results obtained by the tremendous efforts worldwide by all of the
scientists in this field during the past few decades.
As reviewed in Chapter 1, the general concepts of red cell membrane abnormalities
and the categories of each red cell membrane disorder are now well established.
This text is written to all chemical engineering students who are participating in courses about
membrane processes and membrane technology. You are supposed to have the basic skills in
mathematics and chemistry in general. Thus, this text is for students who have completed the basic
engineering introduction courses.
This text gives an introduction to principles behind pressure driven membrane processes. Relevant
theory and models will be presented together with terms widely used in the world of membrane
In this chapter, students will be able to: Know the properties of the different classes of membrane transporters (pores and channels, Passive (facilitative) transporters, active transporters), know the kinetic properties of pores/channels and active and passive transporters, know the difference between primary and secondary active transport systems, know the properties of uniports, symports and antiports,...
Chapter 5 - The dynamic cell membrane. In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What is the structure of a biological membrane? How is the plasma membrane involved in cell adhesion and recognition? What are the passive processes of membrane transport? How do substances cross membranes against a concentration gradient? How do large molecules enter and leave a cell? What are some other functions of membranes?
Chapter 5 - Membrane structure and function, after studying this chapter, you should be able to accomplish the following outcomes: Describe the structure of the plasma membrane and the diverse functions of the embedded proteins; describe what is meant by a semipermeable membrane; predict the effect of osmotic conditions on animal versus plant cells;...
In this chapter you will learn: Define the following terms: amphipathic molecules, aquaporins, diffusion; explain how membrane fluidity is influenced by temperature and membrane composition; distinguish between the following pairs or sets of terms: peripheral and integral membrane proteins, channel and carrier proteins, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport, hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions.
This handbook emphasizes the use of synthetic membranes for separations
involving industrial or municipal process streams. Little will be said concerning
the use of membranes in medical applications as in artificial kidneys
or for controlled drug release.
Most of the membrane processes are pressure driven. The notable exception
to this is electrodialysis (ED) by which ions are separated under the influence
of an electric field. In addition, the chapter on coupled transport covers
processes which are driven under the influence of a concentration gradient....
Surface water treatment is a controversial issue. A healthy balance between possible risks, such as
immediate microbiological contamination and long-term carcinogenic effects due to dsinfection byproducts,
and the treatment costs is required. Another issue of concern relates to drinking water
standards, whch seem unreasonably strict in some countries and practically absent in others. The price
people are required to pap for their water varies with the standards.
The tension structures discussed in this book are predominantly roofing forms created from pre-stressed cable nets, cable trusses, and continuous membranes (fabric structures). A unique feature in their design is form-finding an interactive process of defining the shape of a structure under tension. The book discusses the role of stable minimal surfaces (minimum energy forms occurring in natural objects, such as soap films) in finding optimal shapes of membrane and cable structures.