A memorandum of understanding (MoU) is describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between two or more parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action.
The Secretariats of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and the Convention on Biological
Diversity signed a Memorandum of Understanding on 23rd
March 1996. The articles of neither treaty require this but it was a
decision of the Parties to both conventions to move in this direction.’
The memorandum provides for institutional cooperation between
the Secretariats, exchange of information, coordination of work programmes
and joint conservation action....
Congress was also concerned about some banks’ paying less than the full
amount of checks deposited by their customers because some paying banks
charged fees to presenting banks to pay checks. To avoid paying present-
ment fees, many collecting banks routed checks through banks that were
not charged presentment fees by paying banks. This practice, called circu-
itous routing, resulted in extensive delays and ineff iciencies in the check-
Banks in Italy and Spain made bids for a large proportion of the funds
allocated at the first three-year LTRO (Graph 3, centre panel), while the
funding situation of banks in other regions improved indirectly.
Germany, Luxembourg and Finland, for example, did not take much additional
funding at the first LTRO. However, some of the allotted funds, perhaps after a
number of transactions, ended up as deposits with these banks, boosting the
liquidity of their balance sheets.
By creating the Federal Reserve System, Congress intended to eliminate
the severe f inancial crises that had periodically swept the nation, especially
the sort of f inancial panic that occurred in 1907. During that episode,
payments were disrupted throughout the country because many banks
and clearinghouses refused to clear checks drawn on certain other banks,
a practice that contributed to the failure of otherwise solvent banks. To
address these problems, Congress gave the Federal Reserve System the
authority to establish a nationwide check-clearing system.
Applicants should consider in their proposed research design how policing outcomes have been
influenced by using the above-referenced applications. Successful applicants will also consider
both official agency-sanctioned uses of social media and unofficial practices of the line officers.
It is recommended that the application include a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
between the applicant and the law enforcement agency for the participating jurisdiction(s) under
Many special events are held on private property, with leadership shared among the venue owner/
private security and the local police and ire departments. Even when one law enforcement agency
clearly has the lead and provides most of the resources—a July 4th celebration in a city park, for
example—assistance from other law enforcement agencies may be needed (e.g., sherif’s oice for
prisoner transport, county police for standby tactical support).
The Detailed Speciﬁcation Work Leading to the GSM Phase 1 Standard used for the Opening of Service (1987–1991)
Thomas Haug 1
Mid-1987 was a milestone in the work of GSM. I think everybody in the group felt, despite what they might have felt earlier, that the agreement on the basic parameters in the air interface marked the turning point in the work. Another very important event took place in 1987 after years of preparations, i.e. the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), signed by – initially – 14 operators who made a ﬁrm commitment to implement the system by 1991....