Globalization exerts positive and negative impacts on health and has
been linked to reduced government expenditures on health, education,
and social programs, and restructured workplace and home life. Globalization
is altering gender roles and relationships and influencing health
determinants. Asymmetric rights and responsibilities, labor market segregation,
consumption patterns, and discrimination are influenced differently
by globalization and affect men and women’s health in distinct ways.
Women's risk for many diseases increases at menopause, which occurs at a median age of 51.4 years. In the industrialized world, women spend one-third of their lives in the postmenopausal period.
Estrogen levels fall abruptly at menopause, inducing a variety of physiologic and metabolic responses. Rates of cardiovascular disease increase and bone density begins to decrease rapidly after menopause.
In the United States, women live on average about 5 years longer than men, with a life expectancy at birth in 2004 of 80.4 years, compared to 75.2 years in men.
Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health is the only accredited
school of public health in New York City and is among the ﬁrst in the nation.
Its students and multidisciplinary faculty members engage in research, both
locally and globally, concentrating on biostatistics, environmental health sci-
ences, epidemiology, health policy and management, population and family
health, and sociomedical sciences.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 13
percent of women aged eighteen years and older are in poor, or merely
fair, health. More than 12 percent of women face a limitation in their
usual activities due to chronic health conditions. In addition, 62 percent
of women aged twenty years and older are overweight, a key predictor
of future health problems. Moreover, the medical concerns
women face often differ from those of most concern to men.
The purpose of this book is to consider the woman and her health needs in her
position in her life cycle, her family, and society. Women have historically
been ‘‘the other’’ in medical care. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson considered
women’s development to be deviant from the normal, which was men’s.
Although the Greeks Hippocrates and Soranus wrote about women’s medical
needs, women’s health concerns have either been considered abnormal, or,
traditionally, been condensed to their gynecological functions and disorders,
perhaps because these were their only valued functions....
The American Medical Association Complete Guide to Men’s Health provides
up-to-date information that will enable you to adopt healthy habits that you can
follow throughout your life. The book emphasizes the basics of a healthy
lifestyle and the steps you can take to prevent illness.
In clear, easy-to-understand language, this book describes how different body
systems work, answers many questions you may have about common diseases
and disorders, and explains how many of these conditions can be prevented.
We are living through a period of striking, gender-related social change
in the West as traditional distinctions between the experiences of women
and men are breaking down and being reconfigured in new, more complex
ways. This has significant, but as yet largely unexplored, implications for
health and illness. The long-established life expectancy gap between men
and women appears to be closing in many affluent societies as men begin
to ‘catch up’ with women.
Women’s health concerns have been considered,
examined, and researched differently by the medical
establishment than those of men. Their concerns and
diseases have often been considered unusual and
abnormal when compared to those of men. Yet, the
differences between women and men, discovered and
noted in medicine and research, may be more a creation
of society and its expectations than that of
nature.1 Women are more similar to men than they
The concept of health-promoting schools includes the associated community and
the environment beyond the school gates. Many other people therefore have a
legitimate interest in this work, such as non-teaching staff, those providing confi-
dential counselling, school architects, school food providers, police officers and
transport specialists. However, this chapter focuses on the main stakeholders and
explores the vital understanding between education and health that has to be in
place for health promotion in schools to be sustainable....
A book such as this would not have been written twenty years ago.An awareness
of men as gendered is fairly new in health and social welfare. It took some years
after the early development of social scientific interest in the social construction
of masculinity for academics and practitioners to show an interest in practical
engagement with men as gendered – that is, in engaging with men in such a way
as to recognise how their identities and conduct are shaped by the way they are
raised as men.
Women leak, inevitably and often bountifully. Menstrual blood, birth fluids, breast milk
and sometimes tears lead us to be seen as leakier than men at a physical level. Women are
often seen to work through a network of relationships, a web, rather than the hierarchy of
male decision-making (Gilligan 1982). Within such a web of relationships, emotions,
knowledge and other personal attributes flow, often freely, sometimes unconsciously.
Dirt is defined by Mary Douglas as ‘matter out of place’ (Douglas 1966).
Young men aged 15–24 die at rates far higher than their female counterparts, and
at rates higher than men of any other age group. Worldwide, the leading causes of
death for young men aged 15–24 are traffic accidents and homicide—both
directly related to how boys and men are socialized. In much of Latin America,
the Caribbean and parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the leading cause of early death
far and away is homicide.
Being a man should not seriously damage your health, conclude White and Banks
(2004) in their chapter in a men’s health text. The maxim is used at the beginning of
this text to remind the practice nurse of the fact that being a man in some instances
can and does seriously damage their health. Men are much less likely to visit their
general practice than women. Those men who are aged under 45 years visit their
general practice only half as often as women; it is only when they become older that
the gap narrows signifi cantly....
Since the late 1990s, the volume of research on gender issues in mental
health has grown significantly. One important point that the gender literature
has demonstrated, in addition to clarifying how women’s health
differs from that of men’s, is how little we actually know about men’s
mental health concerns. Although the great body of research in mental
health has historically been based on men, until recently the research has
largely failed to address how male gender integrally influences the clinical
presentation and treatment of various disorders.
It is remarkable to see the rapid increase in interest in the health of men since
the mid-1980s. We have moved from a position where there was almost
complete silence on the subject, an absence that was reflected not only in
policy and clinical practice but also within the academic community, to this
now being recognized as an area of major importance.
The project was implemented in three phases. The preparatory phase from February 2000 to
October 2000 consisted of administrative approvals, completion of the research design, a facility
assessment, formative research on community attitudes and knowledge, procurement of
equipment and supplies, preparation of recordkeeping forms, training of CHWs, initial clinical
training of health center nursing staff in the three pilot divisions and at the district hospital, and
The challenges shaping the life chances of boys and young men of color are well-documented but still shocking. This book draws attention to the urgent need—both economic and moral—to better understand the policy and community-based factors that serve as incentives or barriers to young men and boys of color as they make critical life decisions. This volume draws attention to the potential of a public policy focus on young men and boys of color as a high-leverage strategy for promoting an agenda for equitable, sustainable, healthy communities in California and across the Nation....
The Physicians’ Health Study II, which included more than 14,000 male physicians aged 50
or older, found that neither vitamin E nor vitamin C supplements reduced the risk of major
cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, or death from cardiovascular disease), cancer,
or cataracts. In fact, vitamin E supplements were associated with an increased risk of
hemorrhagic stroke in this study.