Mesenchymal tumors

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  • The specific features of the plasticity of adult stem cells are largely unknown. Recently, we demonstrated the hepatic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs). To identify the genes responsible for hepatic differentiation, we examined the gene expres-sion profiles of AT-MSC-derived hepatocytes (AT-MSC-Hepa) using several microarray methods.

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  • Cancer may constitute the most extensively studied disease entity of our time. Nevertheless, our comprehension of the cellular and molecular pathology of malignant transformation is incomplete. In view of the diverse clinical presentations of various malignancies, doubts may be raised as to whether it is appropriate to refer to cancer as one group of disease states. The notion of malignant tumors as a pathologic and pathophysiologic class of conditions begs the question for defining criteria that characterize all malignant growths, regardless of their tissue of origin....

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  • U mô đệm đường tiêu hóa (GIST: gastrointestinal stromal tumor, u mô đệm) là loại u thường gặp nhất trong các loại u trung mô (mesenchymal tumor) đường tiêu hóa, chiếm tỷ lệ khoảng 1-3% tất cả các u ác tính đường tiêu hóa, với tỷ lệ 6-20 trên 1 triệu dân số(1,2). Hầu hết u phát xuất từ dạ dày (60%), kế tiếp là từ ruột non (30%), và hiếm hơn ở thực quản và đại tràng

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  • Imatinib has also demonstrated targeted activity in other diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), rare mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract (stomach and small intestine). The pathogenic molecular event for most patients with this disease is mutation of the proto-oncogene c-Kit, leading to the constitutive activation of this receptor tyrosine kinase without the binding of its physiologic ligand, stem cell factor. About 10% of GISTs encode activating mutations of the PDGFRα instead of c-Kit.

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  • Tumor-Induced Hypoglycemia Caused by Excess Production of IGF-II (See also Chap. 339) Mesenchymal tumors, hemangiopericytomas, hepatocellular tumors, adrenal carcinomas, and a variety of other large tumors have been reported to produce excessive amounts of insulin-like growth factor type II (IGF-II) precursor, which binds weakly to insulin receptors and strongly to IGF-I receptors, leading to insulin-like actions. The gene encoding IGF-II resides on a chromosome 11p15 locus that is normally imprinted (that is, expression is exclusively from a single parental allele).

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : Targeting of mesenchymal stem cells to ovarian tumors via an artificial receptor

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  • For decades, endocytosis has been recognized as a fundamental cellular process that regulates the uptake of small molecules (cell surface proteins, bacteria, toxins, etc.) into the cell. So why, after years of study, does this simple process warrant more discussion? Anyone who has examined the endocytic pathway will appreciate that this conceptually simple mechanism is highly complex and sophisticated. Like ballet dancers who make their synchronous performance seem effortless, the cell brings in molecules via a carefully choreographed mechanism.

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  • Other Nonmelanoma Cutaneous Malignancies Neoplasms of cutaneous adnexa and sarcomas of fibrous, mesenchymal, fatty, and vascular tissues make up 1–2% of NMSC (Table 83-6). Some can portend a poor prognosis such as Merkel cell carcinoma, which is a neural crestderived, highly aggressive malignancy that exhibits a metastatic rate of 75% and a 5-year survival rate of 30–40%. Others, such as the human herpes virus 8-induced, HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma, exhibit a more indolent course.

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  • Figure 80-6 Oncogene signaling pathways are activated during tumor progression and promote metastatic potential. This figure shows a cancer cell that has undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) under the influence of several environmental signals. Critical components include activated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met pathways, as well as changes in the expression of adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell and cellextracellular matrix interactions.

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