Xem 1-16 trên 16 kết quả Metabolic pattern
  • Organisms subject to changing environmental conditions or experimental protocols show complex patterns of responses. The design principles behind these patterns are still poorly understood. Here, modular metabolic control analysis is developed to deal with large changes in branched pathways.

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  • As early as the middle of the 19th century, scientists were beginning to isolate and characterize organic compounds from nature. Modern studies of the nature of natural products, those compounds not involved in primary metabolic processes, began in the 1930s and 1940s. In the decades that followed, scientists began to focus on why organisms produce these compounds.

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  • THE VEGETATIVE PHASE OF DEVELOPMENT begins with embryogenesis, but development continues throughout the life of a plant. Plant developmental biologists are concerned with questions such as, How does a zygote give rise to an embryo, an embryo to a seedling? How do new plant structures arise from preexisting structures? Organs are generated by cell division and expansion, but they are also composed of tissues in which groups of cells have acquired specialized functions, and these tissues are arranged in specific patterns.

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  • More than ten years ago, two of us (AGH and DGR) were lucky enough to edit a previous symposium of the British Ecological Society (BES) – Aquatic Ecology: Scale, Pattern and Process (Giller, Hildrew & Raffaelli, 1994). In the Introduction to that volume, we pointed out that the BES had not devoted a single previous symposium to aquatic ecosystems.

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  • Although the fifth edition of this book has seen many author changes, our commitment and direction was clearly stated by, Dr. Helen Cox, in the preface to the fourth edition. We continue our commitment to providing a nursing focus to the process of nursing care. The fifth edition reflects seventeen new and six revised diagnoses accepted by NANDA in 2003 and 2005 and updated information in each chapter. The chapter formats remain the same. We have revised the integration of NANDA, NIC, and NOC terminology to assist with understanding their integration.

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  • At the beginning of the 21st century, medicine is increasingly based on understanding the functions of genes and the molecular mechanisms of diseases. In pancreatology, the understanding of functions and dysfunctions of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas is derived from molecular biological data on the actions of compounds in subcellular compartments and intracellular transcription pathways.

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  • Nursing in Today’s World: Trends, Issues, and Management, 10th edition focuses on the nonclinical aspects of the professional nursing role. Much of this content is just as critical to practicing safely as is competence in the performance of clinical skills. As nursing steps up to play a major role in the changes brought about by healthcare reform, knowledge of the profession and its place in the healthcare environment has never been more important.

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  • In describing her art, Louise Nevelson has written: “I do not belong to any movement. As my work is related to the present time, it is bound to be related to that of others, consciously or not....” Her art may be more closely related to her collections of African art, American farm tools, architectural elements, and diverse other fragments of the past and her attraction to the art and architecture of pre-Columbian Mexico and Central America.

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  • MOST OF US are familiar with the observation that house plants placed near a window have branches that grow toward the incoming light. This response, called phototropism, is an example of how plants alter their growth patterns in response to the direction of incident radiation. This response to light is intrinsically different from light trapping by photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, plants harness light and convert it into chemical energy (see Chapters 7 and 8). In contrast, phototropism is an example of the use of light as an environmental signal.

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  • In this experiment, there was one type of real brain MR images. In order to evaluate the performance of the UVSRG, the widely used c-means method (also known as k-means) is used for comparative analysis. The reason to select the c-means method is because it is a spatial-based pattern classification technique. In order to make a fair comparison, the implemented c-means method always designates the desired target signature d as one of its class means with d fixed during iterations.

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  • Chronic Granulomatous Disease Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a group of disorders of granulocyte and monocyte oxidative metabolism. Although CGD is rare, with an incidence of 1 in 200,000 individuals, it is an important model of defective neutrophil oxidative metabolism. Most often CGD is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait; 30% of patients inherit the disease in an autosomal recessive pattern. Mutations in the genes for the four proteins that assemble at the plasma membrane account for all patients with CGD.

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  • Table 48-1 Prediction of Compensatory Responses on Simple AcidBase Disturbances and Pattern of Changes Range of Values Disorder Prediction Compensation of pH HCO3– PaCO2 Metabolic PaCO2= (1.5 x Low Low Low acidosis HCO3-) + 8 ± 2 or PaCO2 will 1.25 mmHg per mmol/L in [HCO3-] or PaCO2 = [HCO3] + 15 Metabolic alkalosis PaCO2 will 0.75 mmHg per mmol/L in [HCO3-] High High High or PaCO2 will 6 mmHg per 10 mmol/L in [HCO3-] or PaCO2= [HCO3-] + 15 Respiratory alkalosis High Low Low Acute 0.2 [HCO3-] mmol/L will per mmHg in PaCO2 Chronic 0.

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  • Normalization of tumor blood vessels due to inhibition of VEGF signaling. A. Blood vessels in normal tissues exhibit a regular hierarchical branching pattern that delivers blood to tissues in a spatially and temporally efficient manner to meet the metabolic needs of the tissue (top). At the microscopic level, tight junctions are maintained between endothelial cells (EC), which are adherent to a thick and evenly distributed basement membrane (BM). Pericytes form a surrounding layer that provides trophic signals to the EC and helps maintain proper vessel tone.

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  • Metabolomics (or metabonomics) is metabolite profil- ing, measuring the real outcome of the potential changes suggested by genomics and proteomics. Metabolomics investigates regulation and metabolic fluxes in individual cells or cell types. Metabonomics combines the power of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance with statistical data analysis of in vivo metabolite patterns. This technique enables rapid screening for xenobiotic toxicity, disease state, drug efficiency, nutritional status and even gene function in the “whole” organism. (Nicholson et al., 2002).

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  • Water temperature plays an important role in signaling biological functions such as spawning and migration, and in affecting metabolic rates in aquatic organisms. Altering natural water temperature cycles can impair reproductive success and growth patterns, leading to long-term population declines in fisheries and other classes of organisms. Warmer water holds less oxygen, impairing metabolic function and reducing fitness.

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  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that can regulate target mRNAs by binding to their 3¢-UTRs. A single miRNA can regulate many mRNA targets, and several miRNAs can regulate a single mRNA. These have been reported to be involved in a variety of functions, including developmental transitions, neuronal patterning, apoptosis, adipogenesis metabolism and hematopoiesis in different organisms.

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