Organisms subject to changing environmental conditions or experimental
protocols show complex patterns of responses. The design principles behind
these patterns are still poorly understood. Here, modular metabolic control
analysis is developed to deal with large changes in branched pathways.
In a certain sense, the field of drug metabolism (DM) is standing still. More
specifically, the basic experiment of drug metabolism (i.e., administering a new
drug to an animal or human and determining the structures, amounts, and
disposition of the metabolites) has changed very little over a period of decades.
Remarkably, the experimental design and resulting data set from a typical
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) study conducted
today would be instantly recognized and understood by DM scientists from 50
Since the discovery of the DNA structure researchers have been highly interested in the molecular basis of genome inheritance. This book covers a wide range of aspects and issues related to the field of DNA replication. The association between genome replication, repair and recombination is also addressed, as well as summaries of recent work of the replication cycles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses. The reader will gain an overview of our current understanding of DNA replication and related cellular processes, and useful resources for further reading....
The rhizome oil ofZingiber zerumbetSmith contains an exceptionally high
content of sesquiterpenoids with zerumbone, a predominating potential
multi-anticancer agent. Biosynthetic pathways of zerumbone have been
proposed, and two genesZSS1andCYP71BA1that encode the enzymes
catalyzing the first two steps have been cloned.
The Deepwater Horizon Oil Disaster is one of the worst environmental disasters in history. The resulting
crude oil and Corexit (dispersant) in the Gulf of Mexico can cause harm to humans and the environment
When discussing the effects of the oil spill, use of the term toxic causes difficulty in that it can describe
either toxic to humans, toxic to nature or both.
Geobiology is a highly cross-disciplinary field that
explores the present and past relationships that life has
with non-living matter. “Biosphere meets Geosphere” per-
haps most parsimoniously describes the fundamental con-
cept of Geobiology. In 1991, Peter Westbroek, a Dutch
paleontologist and influential protagonist of Geobiology
defined the field in a book entitled “Life as a Geological
Force: Dynamics of the Earth”, thus motivating a new
way of thinking in the geosciences.
Bender's Dictionary of Nutrition and Food Technology, Seventh Edition, remains the essential reference book for anyone interested in nutrition, dietetics, food science, and food technology. The first edition was published 40 years ago and contained 2,000 entries. This Seventh Edition now includes over 5,000 succinct, authoritative definitions.
As early as the middle of the 19th century, scientists were beginning to isolate and characterize
organic compounds from nature. Modern studies of the nature of natural products, those compounds
not involved in primary metabolic processes, began in the 1930s and 1940s. In the decades that
followed, scientists began to focus on why organisms produce these compounds.
uclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can now be used to investigate the biochemical energetics of human tissues and organs noninvasively. The method already has increased our understanding of some muscle diseases, has provided information from muscle metabolism about whole-body functions, control, and hormonal status, has helped in the elucidation of hitherto unrecognized causes of disease, and yielded new ideas about the control of bioenergetics in vivo. Studies on the biochemistry of human brain, liver, heart, and kidney are just beginning.
Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles. The metabolome represents the collection of all metabolites in a biological cell, tissue, organ or organism, which are the end products of cellular processes.
Metabolism of pesticides denotes that any foreign substance that enters in the living
system and how it will be changed into non-toxic and thrown out due to the
enzymatic activity and other mode of action. When chemical toxins applied to nonliving
substance (soil and water) that will lose the toxic principles by degradation
process due to the action of biotic and abiotic factors. The time to nullify the toxicity is
of prime importance and it vary depending upon the chemical molecule and
All living organisms require food for survival, growth, and reproduction.
Most broadly, the term food can be taken to include any kind of nutrient
needed by animals, plants, and simpler forms of life, on down to
bacteria. This would include, for example, the inorganic substances that
plants draw from air and water. The processes that circulate these basic
nutrients in the environment are called nutrient cycles, and the processes
by which organisms make use of nutrients are collectively known as
With the introduction of genetic engineering of Escherichia coli by Cohen, Boyer
and co-workers in 1973, the way was paved for a completely new approach to
optimisation of existing biotech processes and development of completely new
ones. This lead to new biotech processes for the production of recombinant proteins,
e.g. the production of human insulin by a recombinant E. coli.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), like
hepatitis C and HIV, is a disease of our generation.
Mostly unrecognized prior to 1980 and seldom taken
seriously until the past few years, NAFLD has seemingly
been thrust upon us unexpectantly like an
orphaned child left at our clinical bedside. In fact,
NAFLD was conceived during the industrial revolution,
which caused food to be processed differently,
provided that food more abundantly and made physical
work less demanding.
The seeming simplicity of our daily activities is greatly contrasted by the
complexity of our true nature—quite a paradox, no doubt. It is simple in
that, on the outside, the goals of our body may appear few. We internalize
food, water, and oxygen while at the same time ridding ourselves of carbon
dioxide and other waste materials. These operations support reproduction,
growth, maintenance, and defense. Yet on the inside our body
may seem very complex as various organs participate in a tremendous
number of complicated processes intended to meet the simple goals
More than ten years ago, two of us (AGH and DGR) were lucky enough to edit a
previous symposium of the British Ecological Society (BES) – Aquatic Ecology: Scale,
Pattern and Process (Giller, Hildrew & Raffaelli, 1994). In the Introduction to that
volume, we pointed out that the BES had not devoted a single previous symposium
to aquatic ecosystems.
The production of free radicals (ROS) is an unavoidable consequence of life in an
aerobic environment. Free radicals produced from the metabolic activities of oxygen
attack biological membranes and lipoproteins via oxidation in a process called
lipid perioxidation. This attack damages cells and lipids often in a chain reaction
with carbon-based molecules such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in a reaction
with molecular oxygen. This creates oxidative stress and damage to tissues.
Free radicals also damage chromosomal DNA.
LIFE ON EARTH ULTIMATELY DEPENDS ON ENERGY derived from the sun. Photosynthesis is the only process of biological importance that can harvest this energy. In addition, a large fraction of the planet’s energy resources results from photosynthetic activity in either recent or ancient times (fossil fuels). This chapter introduces the basic physical principles that underlie photosynthetic energy storage and the current understanding of the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus (Blankenship 2002). The term photosynthesis means literally “synthesis using light.
HIGHER PLANTS ARE AUTOTROPHIC ORGANISMS that can synthesize their organic molecular components out of inorganic nutrients obtained from their surroundings. For many mineral nutrients, this process involves absorption from the soil by the roots (see Chapter 5) and incorporation into the organic compounds that are essential for growth and development. This incorporation of mineral nutrients into organic substances such as pigments, enzyme cofactors, lipids, nucleic acids, and amino acids is termed nutrient assimilation....