Cell biology of carbohydrate metabolism: Regulation of metabolic pathways, glucose as a regulator of metabolism, a carbohydrate response element (ChoRE) consists of 2 E-box like elements separated by 5 nucleotides, metabolic control analysis,...
The food we eat has a major effect on our physical health and psychological wellbeing.
An understanding of the way in which nutrients are metabolized, and hence of the
principles of biochemistry, is essential for an understanding of the scientific basis of
what we would call a prudent or healthy diet.
My aim in the following pages is to explain both the conclusions of the many
expert committees that have deliberated on the problems of nutritional requirements,
diet and health over the years and also the scientific basis on which these experts have
reached their conclusions.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học Journal of Biology đề tài: At the crossroads: AMP-activated kinase and the LKB1 tumor suppressor link cell proliferation to metabolic regulation...
FOR NEARLY 30 YEARS after the discovery of auxin in 1927, and more than 20 years after its structural elucidation as indole-3-acetic acid, Western plant scientists tried to ascribe the regulation of all developmental phenomena in plants to auxin. However, as we will see in this and subsequent chapters, plant growth and development are regulated by several different types of hormones acting individually and in concert. In the 1950s the second group of hormones, the gibberellins (GAs), was characterized.
THE CYTOKININS WERE DISCOVERED in the search for factors that stimulate plant cells to divide (i.e., undergo cytokinesis). Since their discovery, cytokinins have been shown to have effects on many other physiological and developmental processes, including leaf senescence, nutrient mobilization, apical dominance, the formation and activity of shoot apical meristems, floral development, the breaking of bud dormancy, and seed germination.
Policymaking to deal with the global financial crisis and ensuing global recession has now moved
from containing the contagion to specific actions aimed at promoting recovery and changing
regulations to prevent a reoccurrence of the problem. Other issues, such as health care and the
war in Afghanistan, also are competing for attention. Some have expressed concern that the
improving economic and financial outlook may cause regulatory reform of the financial system to
lose some traction in the crowded policy agenda.
Chapter 10 introduction to metabolism. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Define catabolism and anabolism and know general properties regarding each, know the difference between a heterotroph and a autotroph, know the general spatial organization of pathways (multienzyme complexes, individual soluble proteins, membrane associated),...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding regulatory RNAs that function via
the degradation of target mRNAs and inhibition of translation. They are
found widely in higher eukaryotic organisms, and in several species that
have been closely examined, hundreds of miRNAs have thus far been
discovered with mechanistically conserved, yet functionally diverse, roles
necessary for the proper development, homeostasis and metabolism of
Acomputational approach is used to analyse temporal gene
expression in the context of metabolic regulation. It is based
on the assumption that cells developed optimal adaptation
strategies to changing environmental conditions. Time-dependent enzyme profiles are calculatedwhichoptimize the
function of a metabolic pathway under the constraint of
limited total enzymeamount.For linearmodel pathways it is
shown thatwave-like enzyme profiles are optimal for a rapid
In chapter 23, we talked about how foods are digested and absorbed, but what happens to these foods once they enter the blood? Why do we need bread, meat, and fresh vegetables? Why does everything we eat seem to turn to fat? In this chapter we will answer these questions as we examine both the nature of nutrients and their metabolic roles.
The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Protein metabolism, oxidation of amino acids, protein synthesis, catabolic-anabolic steady state, nutrient pools, amino acid pool, carbohydrate and fat pools, absorptive and postabsorptive states,...
In the mid-1990s plant biotechnology burst onto the scene in world agriculture,
beginning a second ‘green revolution’ and precipitating one of the great public debates
of our time. Approximately a decade later, this book describes the impact of genetically
modified (GM) crops on world agriculture, recent advances in the technology and the
areas of research from which the next generation of GM crops is likely to emerge, as well
as addresses the issues of safety and regulation that have dogged the technology,
particularly in Europe.
A global research community of scientists is teasing out the biochemical mechanisms that regulate normal cellular physiology in a variety of organisms. Much of current research aims to understand the network of molecular reactions that regulate cellular homeostasis, and to learn what allows cells to sense stress and activate appropriate biochemical responses.
Osteoporosis and fractures may increase due to hypoestrogenism in menopause and
cytochrome P450 inducing AEDs. Recent studies suggest lower bone mineral density (BMD)
in adults and children with epilepsy, irrespective of AED treatment.
Both idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy are associated with reduced BMD, with
the greatest reduction in symptomatic generalized epilepsy (Sheth & Hermann, 2008).
However, the pathophysiological underlying mechanisms are far from understood and likely
In muscle forms as cytosolic granules with a diameter of 10 to 40 nm - the same as the size of ribosome.
Concentration (liver cells) concentration (muscle cells)
Total amount of glycogen in muscle cells in the liver.
In the uterus, glycogen is stored during pregnancy to nourish the embryo.
In vagina, glycogen is secreted and then converted into lactic acid to maintain the acidic environment in order to protect vagina from outside bacteria infections.
In kidneys, brain and white blood cells....
Among these taxa, bacteria are very important because they play a crucial role in most
biogeochemical cycles in marine ecosystems (Fenchel, 1988), taking part in the
decomposition of organic matter and the cycling of nutrients. Bacteria are also an important
source of food for a variety of marine organisms (Das et al., 2006), and their activity has a
major impact on ecosystem metabolism and function.
PLANT CELLS, UNLIKE ANIMAL CELLS, are surrounded by a relatively thin but mechanically strong cell wall. This wall consists of a complex mixture of polysaccharides and other polymers that are secreted by the cell and are assembled into an organized network linked together by both covalent and noncovalent bonds. Plant cell walls also contain structural proteins, enzymes, phenolic polymers, and other materials that modify the wall’s physical and chemical characteristics.
THE FORM AND FUNCTION of multicellular organism would not be possible without efficient communication among cells, tissues, and organs. In higher plants, regulation and coordination of metabolism, growth, and morphogenesis often depend on chemical signals from one part of the plant to another. This idea originated in the nineteenth century with the German botanist Julius von Sachs (1832–1897). Sachs proposed that chemical messengers are responsible for the formation and growth of different plant organs.
PLANT CELLS ARE SEPARATED from their environment by a plasma membrane that is only two lipid molecules thick. This thin layer separates a relatively constant internal environment from highly variable external surroundings. In addition to forming a hydrophobic barrier to diffusion, the membrane must facilitate and continuously regulate the inward and outward traffic of selected molecules and ions as the cell takes up nutrients, exports wastes, and regulates its turgor pressure.
This chapter deals with quantitative aspects of macronutrient metabolism and its regulation in maternal and conceptus tissues in vivo, emphasizing data and concepts generated or revised during the decade since publication of a similar chapter in the first edition of this book (see Bell, 1993)....