Fatty acids are an important energy source, for they yield over twice as much energy as an equal mass of carbohydrate or protein. In humans, the primary dietary source of fatty acids is triacylglycerols. This lecture will describe the metabolism of fatty acids. The two main components of fatty acid metabolism are β oxidation and fatty acid synthesis. Upon completion of this lecture, you will understand that the fatty-acid breakdown reactions of β oxidation result in the formation of reduced cofactors and acetyl-CoA molecules, which can be further catabolized to release free energy.
(BQ) Ebook Biochemistry of Plant Secondary Metabolism is designed for use by advanced students, researchers and profes-sionals in plant biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, genetics, agricul-ture and pharmacy working in the academic and industrial sectors, including the pesticide and pharmaceutical industries.
Liver Metabolism and Fatty Liver Disease addresses the current understanding of the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as well as the clinical aspects of the disease by examining the current knowledge surrounding metabolism in the liver. The book discusses various topics including the involvement of oxidative stress, metabolic effects, and inflammation as well as the effect of nutrition on the development and progression of the disease.
The food we eat has a major effect on our physical health and psychological wellbeing.
An understanding of the way in which nutrients are metabolized, and hence of the
principles of biochemistry, is essential for an understanding of the scientific basis of
what we would call a prudent or healthy diet.
My aim in the following pages is to explain both the conclusions of the many
expert committees that have deliberated on the problems of nutritional requirements,
diet and health over the years and also the scientific basis on which these experts have
reached their conclusions.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS PROVIDES the organic building blocks that plants (and nearly all other life) depend on. Respiration, with its associated carbon metabolism, releases the energy stored in carbon compounds in a controlled manner for cellular use. At the same time it generates many carbon precursors for biosynthesis. In the first part of this chapter we will review respiration in its metabolic context, emphasizing the interconnections and the special features that are peculiar to plants.
In a certain sense, the field of drug metabolism (DM) is standing still. More
specifically, the basic experiment of drug metabolism (i.e., administering a new
drug to an animal or human and determining the structures, amounts, and
disposition of the metabolites) has changed very little over a period of decades.
Remarkably, the experimental design and resulting data set from a typical
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) study conducted
today would be instantly recognized and understood by DM scientists from 50
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel extracts (CGE) on activity of lipid-carbohydrate metabolic enzymes such as Carnitine pamitoyl-transferase (CPT), lipase, hexokinase, glucose 6-phosphatase and blood lipid glucose parameters in experimental obese and diabetic mice. The results showed that, in the experimental obese mice treated daily, orally with CGE at dose of 1200 mg/body weight for three weeks,
Organisms subject to changing environmental conditions or experimental
protocols show complex patterns of responses. The design principles behind
these patterns are still poorly understood. Here, modular metabolic control
analysis is developed to deal with large changes in branched pathways.
The human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus accumulates large
amounts of intracellular mannitol to enhance its resistance against defense
strategies of the infected host. To explore their currently unknown roles in
mannitol metabolism, we studied A. fumigatus mannitol-1-phosphate
5-dehydrogenase (AfM1PDH) and mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (AfM2DH)
We report unambiguous proof of the stability of a carbinol intermediate in
the case of P450 metabolism of an N-methylated natural cyclo-peptide,
namely tentoxin. Under mild acidic or neutral conditions, the lifetime of
carbinol-amide is long enough to be fully characterized.
Metabolism. There isn’t perhaps a more frequently used word in the weight loss (and weight gain) vocabulary than this. Indeed, it’s not uncommon to overhear people talking about their struggles – or triumphs – over the holiday bulge or love handles in terms of whether their metabolism is working, or not. Doctors, too, often refer to metabolism when they try and explain why starvation and water-loss diets aren’t scientifically of medically responsible; since, alas, they do not influence or take into account metabolism (there’s that word again!). ...
Cell biology of carbohydrate metabolism: Regulation of metabolic pathways, glucose as a regulator of metabolism, a carbohydrate response element (ChoRE) consists of 2 E-box like elements separated by 5 nucleotides, metabolic control analysis,...
Chapter 10 introduction to metabolism. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Define catabolism and anabolism and know general properties regarding each, know the difference between a heterotroph and a autotroph, know the general spatial organization of pathways (multienzyme complexes, individual soluble proteins, membrane associated),...
Chapter 17 (part 1) - Amino acid metabolism: Nitrogen assimilation and amino acid biosynthesis. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Know how different forms of nitrogen get to assimilatable form, know what types of organisms have this enzyme, know the reactions catalyzed by the enzymes below. Know structure of substrates and products, know co-enzymes and co-substrates involved,...