Metabolism of vitamin

Xem 1-20 trên 25 kết quả Metabolism of vitamin
  • We report an alternative, hydroxylating pathway for the metabolism of vitamin D2 in a cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc; CYP11A1) reconstituted system. NMR analyses identified solely 20-hydroxyvitamin D2and 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D2derivatives. 20-Hydroxyvitamin D2was produced at a rate of 0.34 molÆmin )1 Æmol )1 P450scc, and 17,20-dihydroxy-vitamin D2 was produced at a rate of 0.13 molÆmin )1 Æmol )1 .

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  • Introduction: As coumarin rodenticides, warfarin, coumatetralyl, coumafuryl, coumachlor and bromadiolone are commercially available in Japan. The coumarin rodenticides do not show direct anticoagulant action causing bleeding, but inhibit the metabolic cycle of vitamin K; the inhibition causes the interference with protein biosynthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulant factors (II, VII, IX and X factors) in the liver, which are very important for the blood coagulation system. The lowered coagulant factors cause the bleeding deaths of the rodents [1].

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  • In the first volume of this two-volume book, Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients , the needs for the macronutrients were discussed. The absorption, metabolism, excretion, and function of the various sources of energy as well as detailed discussions of the need for water and energy balance were presented. The needs for the micronutrients, as well as explanations of how these nutrients function in the body, were deferred to this, the second volume.

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  • Vitamin E is an important topic because many benefits and some risks have been attributed to it when used as a nutritional supplement. Moreover, there has been considerable progress in the basic science of this vitamin in recent years. This volume reviews recent aspects of the biochemistry and molecular biology of this vitamin, associated macromolecules, metabolism of the vitamin and its derivatives, and its many roles in health and disease. The various contributions comprising this volume are listed here in the order in which they are presented in the volume....

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  • Retinoic acid and its relatives, natural products of vitamin A metabolism, have been discovered to be critical ligands for key receptors of the steroid receptor superfamily, such as the retinoic acid receptor and the RXR receptor. Vitamins and Hormones has not had a review of this important fatsoluble vitamin for some time, and it seemed important not only to touch on the modern aspects of the retinoic acid receptor and its relatives but also of the roles of vitamin A in development and diVerentiation as well as its activity in certain tissues and in disease states....

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  • Whether dimerization is a general regulatory mechanism of receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) is a subject of debate. Biochemical evidence demonstrates that RPTPaand cluster of differentiation (CD)45 dimerize.

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  • We show that cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in either a reconstituted system or in isolated adrenal mitochondria can metabolize vita-min D3. The major products of the reaction with reconstituted enzyme were 20-hydroxycholecalciferol and 20,22-dihydroxycholecalciferol, with yields of 16 and 4%, respectively, of the original vitamin D3 substrate. Tri-hydroxycholecalciferol was a minor product, likely arising from further metabolism of dihydroxycholecalciferol.

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  • The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Historically, the B vitamins were once thought to be a single vitamin, referred to as Vitamin B (much like how people refer to Vitamin C or Vitamin D). Later research showed that they are chemically distinct vitamins that often coexist in the same foods. Supplements containing all eight B vitamins are generally referred to as a vitamin B complex. Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific name of each vitamin (e.g. B1, B2, B3).

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  • The vitamins are a chemically disparate group of compounds whose only common feature is that they are dietary essentials that are required in small amounts for the normal functioning of the body and maintenance of metabolic integrity.Metabolically, they have diverse functions, such as coenzymes, hormones, antioxidants, mediators of cell signaling, and regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation.

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  • Osteoporosis and fractures may increase due to hypoestrogenism in menopause and cytochrome P450 inducing AEDs. Recent studies suggest lower bone mineral density (BMD) in adults and children with epilepsy, irrespective of AED treatment. Both idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy are associated with reduced BMD, with the greatest reduction in symptomatic generalized epilepsy (Sheth & Hermann, 2008). However, the pathophysiological underlying mechanisms are far from understood and likely multifactorial.

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  • Lipids (fats and oils) are a wide range of organic molecules that serve several functions in organisms. Lipids are essential components of our diet, highlighting their important contribution in energy, representing 9 kcal/g (or 37.7 kJ/g), and by some components relevant to the metabolism, such as essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins and sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols).

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  • Flavonoids Flavonoids constitute a large family of polyphenols that contribute to the aroma, taste, and color of fruits and vegetables. Major groups of dietary flavonoids include anthocyanidins in berries; catechins in green tea and chocolate; flavonols (e.g., quercitin) in broccoli, kale, leeks, onion, and the skins of grapes and apples; and isoflavones (e.g., genistein) in legumes. Isoflavones have a low bioavailability and are partially metabolized by the intestinal flora.

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  • Biotin Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a role in gene expression, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis and serves as a CO 2 carrier on the surface of both cytosolic and mitochondrial carboxylase enzymes. The vitamin also functions in the catabolism of specific amino acids (e.g., leucine). Excellent food sources of biotin include organ meat such as liver or kidney, soy, beans, yeast, and egg yolks; however, egg white contains the protein avidin, which strongly binds the vitamin and reduces its bioavailability.

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  • 1. Furosemide 40 to 240 mg IV over 30 minutes 2. Ethacrynic acid 50 to 100 mg IV over 30 minutes 3. Bumetanide 1 to 8 mg IV over 30 minutes Copyright ©2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Samuels, Martin A. Manual of Neurologic Therapeutics, 7th Edition VITAMIN DEFICIENCY, DEPENDENCY, AND TOXICITY Part of "16 - Toxic and Metabolic Disorders" VITAMIN A BACKGROUND 1. Vitamin A deficiency is an important cause of blindness in large parts of the world but is rare in economically developed countries. 2. Vitamin A intoxication is seen in people who engage in megavitamin therapy.

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  • Cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) can hydroxylate vitamin D3 to produce 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 and other poorly characterized hydroxylated prod-ucts. The present study aimed to identify all the products of vitamin D3 metabolism by P450scc, as well as the pathways leading to their formation.

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  • Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) deficiency results in decreased retinol utilization, but it is unclear what physio-logical roles the several known ADHs play in retinoid signaling. Here, Adh1, Adh3,andAdh4null mutant mice have been examined following acute and chronic vitamin A excess. Following an acute dose of retinol (50 mgÆkg )1 ), metabolism of retinol to retinoic acid in liver was reduced 10-fold inAdh1mutants and 3.8-fold inAdh3mutants, but was not significantly reduced inAdh4mutants.

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  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble antioxidant, constituting one among the most prevalent dietary antioxidants found in fruits, vegetables and beverages. Dietary intake is usually in the area of 100 mg/d, with a DRI-RDA of 75mg/d (men) and 60mg/d (women) (National Academy of Sciences, 2000). Food items rich in vitamin C include bell peppers (ca. 120 mg/100g) and citrus fruits such as oranges (ca. 50 mg/100g) (Souci, 2000). Vitamin C contribution to the total antioxidant activity conferred e.g.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Asthma families show transmission disequilibrium of gene variants in the vitamin D metabolism and signalling pathway...

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 100. Megaloblastic Anemias Megaloblastic Anemias: Introduction The megaloblastic anemias are a group of disorders characterized by the presence of distinctive morphologic appearances of the developing red cells in the bone marrow. The cause is usually deficiency of either cobalamin (vitamin B 12) or folate, but megaloblastic anemia may arise because of genetic or acquired abnormalities affecting the metabolism of these vitamins or because of defects in DNA synthesis not related to cobalamin or folate (Table 100-1).

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Hormone replacement therapy, calcium and vitamin D3 versus calcium and vitamin D3 alone decreases markers of cartilage and bone metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN46523456]...

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