Metal contamination

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  • Written by a multidisciplinary group of scientists from around the globe Environmental Restoration of Metals-Contaminated Soils provides a summary of the current environmental remediation technology.

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  • Characterizing the nature of heavy metal release reactions, sorption mechanisms, and movement in the soil is the main topic of this book. Because soils are heterogeneous, heavy metals in soils can be involved in a series of complex chemical and biological interactions including oxidation-reduction, precipitation and dissolution, volatilization, and surface and solution phase complexation. The heterogeneous nature of the different soil constituents adds to the complexity of interactions of heavy metal species with the soil environment....

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  • Soil contamination has severely increased over the last decades, mainly due to petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals from industrial wastes and human activities. The critical point regarding contaminated soil monitoring is the intrinsic difficulty in defining fixed monitoring variables and indicators as the establishment of any a priori criterion and threshold for soil quality can be still considered subjective.

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  • QUY CHUẨN KỸ THUẬT QUỐC GIA QCVN 8-2:2011/BYT ĐỐI VỚI GIỚI HẠN Ô NHIỄM KIM LOẠI NẶNG TRONG THỰC PHẨM National technical regulation on the safety limits of heavy metals contaminants in food HÀ NỘI - 2011 .Lời nói đầu QCVN 8-2:2011/BYT do Ban soạn thảo Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật quốc gia về vệ sinh an toàn thực phẩm biên soạn, Cục An toàn vệ sinh thực phẩm trình duyệt và được ban hành theo Thông tư số 02 /2011/TT-BYT ngày 13 tháng 01 năm 2011 của Bộ trưởng Bộ Y tế.

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  • The generation of wastes as a result of human activities has been continuously speeding up since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Hence, both optimized waste water treatment technologies and modern tools to assess the effects of pollution sources are necessary to prevent the contamination of aquatic ecosystems The book offers an interdisciplinary collection of topics concerning waste water treatment technologies, water quality monitoring and evaluation of waste water impact on natural environments.

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  • Much of the convenience of modern life resides in sheet metal, the cowling shield of most machines and appliances. However, the load that this takes off human shoulders has to be carried elsewhere, and the Earth has borne the burden. Many of us woke up to the environmental cost when over a century of industrialization finally surpassed the capacity of nature to assimilate it. International in scope, Heavy Metals in the Environment: Using Wetlands for Their Removal discusses wetland functions and heavy metal contamination.

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  • Worldwide, crude oil demand is unceasingly increasing. As a response, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes have re‐gained interest from the research and development phases to the oilfield EOR implementation stage. This renewed interest has been also furthered by the current high oil price environment, the maturation of oilfields worldwide, and few new‐well discoveries. Concurrently, environmental concerns and public pressure related to crude oil pollution control and remediation of oilcontaminated sites are becoming greater than ever....

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  • This book provides a comprehensive compilation of chapters in air quality modelling, monitoring, exposure, health and control. The book consists of two volumes. Air Pollution – Monitoring, Modelling and Health mainly consist of chapters describing pioneering research findings in air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure and health; Air Pollution – Monitoring, Modelling, Health and Control comprises research findings on air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure, health and control.

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  • VISUAL INSPECTION is a nondestructive testing technique that provides a means of detecting and examining a variety of surface flaws, such as corrosion, contamination, surface finish, and surface discontinuities on joints (for example, welds, seals, solder connections, and adhesive bonds).

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  • A variety of organisms have been investigated to evaluate their potential as biological indicators of different forms of pollution in the aquatic environment (e.g. review by Gunkel 1994). Certain species have been identified as being highly sensitive either in their physiological response to aquatic contaminants or in their ability to accumulate particular toxins in a dose-time dependent manner.

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  • There are, actually, no formal Swedish regulations for organic contaminants in sludge. There is an informal agreement between the Swedish EPA, the Farmers Union and the Water and Wastewater Association which includes the recommendations in table 3.1-1. These agreements are based more on practical experience than on scientific data. Sweden also used to have a recommended limit value for toluene, but this has been omitted (WALLGREN 2001).

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  • In the present sample of 23 countries in which patients are required to purchase medicines in the public sector, prices paid for the lowest-priced generic medicines, on average, range from 1.9 times the international reference price (IRP) in the Eastern Mediterranean to 3.7 times the IRP in Europe. In some individual countries, local prices for generics exceed the interna- tional reference prices by a factor of four and above: examples include, Ukraine (MPR, 4.0), Sudan (MPR, 4.4), Kazakhstan (MPR, 4.8) and the Philippines (MPR, 6.4).

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  • The complexity of children’s environmental health (CEH) issues is compounded by the combination of legacy environmental issues, such as water quality and sanitation service delivery, with modern challenges such as transboundary contamination by persistent toxic substances, ozone depletion and hence ultraviolet and ionising radiation, global climate change, and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals).

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  • Phytoremediation is an altemative technology to remove heavy metals in contaminated soil. Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash) was used for Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) · removal experiments in 4 various soil types: {SI) sandy soil with abundant organic matter; (82) sandy soil with poor organic matter; (83) clay soil with abundant organic matter; (84) clay soil with poor organic matter. Plants were grown for 30 days before transferring to experimental pots.

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  • Through the studies, we can deduce that most of the industrial discharge carries toxic substances. Due to the presence of high amount of toxic, carcinogen, and teratogen of metals, researchers are highly concerned with its effect on the environment and health of mankind. Rigorous investigations are currently being carried out to study the consequences of the contamination on the surface water, groundwater, and surface land due to industrial discharge.

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  • Since the Second World War, and especially since the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962, there has been growing concern about contamination of the environment by “man-made” chemicals. These chemicals may be present in industrial and municipal effluents, in consumer or commercial products, in mine tailings, in petroleum products, and in gaseous emissions. Some chemicals such as pesticides may be specifically designed to kill biota present in natural or agricultural ecosystems. They may be organic, inorganic, metallic, or radioactive in nature.

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  • The pH values will bring effects in flora and fauna nearby, change the taste of water and lead to heavy corrosion in pipe lines. High conductivity naturally indicates the presence of ionic substances dissolved in the river water. However, the result showed that 90% of the study site exceeded the data reported for non-contaminated rivers due to excessive metal ions within the water. At the site nearer to kaolin industry the conductivity is 852 times higher than the non-polluted study site. The industrial discharge also changed the hardness in river water.

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  • The technique can be applied for chlorophyll level monitoring in basic photosynthesis research, agriculture, horticulture, and forestry. Abiotic stress (water deficit, salinity, heat, heavy metals soil contamination, intense light, etc) affects significantly crop growth and yield in agricultural areas all over the world. Thus, it is imperative to study their effect upon the crops and discriminate among abiotic stresses using new noninvasive and nondestructive remote sensing precision diagnostic techniques.

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  • The contamination of metals is a major environmental problem and especially in the aquatic environment. Some metals are potentially toxic or carcinogenic even at very low concentration and are thus, hazardous to human if they enter the food chain. Metals are usually dissolved into the aquatic system through natural or anthropogenic sources. Metal ions are distributed thoroughly during their transport in different compartments of the aquatic ecosystems, in biotic or abiotic compartment such as fishes, water, sediment, plant.

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  • Rai & Tripathi (2009a) added that most metals in aquatic environment associated with particulate matter, then settled and accumulated in the bed sediments. The accumulation of contaminant in the bed sediments and the remobilization of contaminant are the most important mechanisms of contaminant in an aquatic ecosystem regulation. Furthermore, under certain circumstances such as deficit in dissolved oxygen or decreased in pH, the bed sediments can be another source of secondary water pollution when the heavy metals from bed sediments are released....

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