Characterizing the nature of heavy metal release reactions, sorption mechanisms,
and movement in the soil is the main topic of this book. Because soils are heterogeneous,
heavy metals in soils can be involved in a series of complex chemical and
biological interactions including oxidation-reduction, precipitation and dissolution,
volatilization, and surface and solution phase complexation. The heterogeneous
nature of the different soil constituents adds to the complexity of interactions of
heavy metal species with the soil environment....
Producers are also avid users of social media. Historically, producers have networked within a defined
geographic territory. Because people generally only buy from producers they trust, developing trust has
generally meant face-to-face interaction. However, as people grow more accustomed to trusting
relationships developed online, producers who excel at developing such relationships will likely pursue
licenses and sales opportunities outside traditional geographic areas.
Since their first introduction, metallic biomaterials have always been designed to
be corrosion resistant. For decades, this paradigm has become the mainframe of
the biomaterials world. It has been cited in thousands of scientific papers and
taught in hundreds of courses of materials for biomedical devices. It has also been
followed by industries in developing millions of medical devices until today.
Nowadays, with the advent of tissue engineering, biomaterials are envisaged to
actively interact with the body.
Porous metal organic framework nanoscale carriers as a potential platform for drug
delivery and imaging, In the domain of health, one important challenge is the efficient delivery of drugs in the body using non-toxic nanocarriers. Most of the existing carrier materials show poor drug loading and or rapid release of the proportion of the drug that is simply adsorbed at the external surface of the nanocarrier.
Contraceptive use accounts for a substantial portion of the variation in
observed fertility rates (others include age of marriage, abortion rates, post-
partum amenorrhea and abstinence, and occurrence of marital separations).
Although there have been dramatic increases in the use of family planning
services, unmet need for family planning remains very high in low-prevalence
At its inception, the original plan for this symposium was to emphasize
the medical aspects of inorganic chemistry, rather than to go over
once more new developments in bioinorganic chemistry, important as the
subject is, since the latter topic has been treated many times in recent
symposia reviews and monographs.
Under the Pharmaceutical Zero-for-Zero Initiative, which entered into force in 1995, the
United States and its major trading partners eliminated tariffs on many pharmaceuticals,
their derivatives, and certain chemical intermediates used to make pharmaceuticals. The
U.S. list of pharmaceutical products and chemical intermediates that are eligible for duty-
free treatment under the agreement is presented in the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.
As rates of deforestation and land degradation, and losses of biodiversity and
ecosystem services, continue to rise globally, the international community is faced
with the challenge of finding land use interventions that can mitigate or reduce the
impact of these environmental issues. Agroforestry, the integration of trees in farming
systems, has the potential for providing rural livelihoods and habitats for species
outside formally protected lands, connecting nature reserves, and alleviating resourceuse
pressure on conservation areas.
Why did I decide to write this book? As an undergraduate student I could not
make up my mind whether I wanted to be a zoologist or a botanist, so I decided to
adopt ecology, in its broadest sense, as my area of interest. This led me to think
about interactions among organisms and to try to look at ecosystems from a
holistic, rather than from an autecological, point of view. As someone with little
formal training in mycology, my interest in fungi started during my doctoral
research, especially when attending university-wide lectures by C. T. Ingold,
given at the University of London.
In order to predict hardening stresses quantitatively, it is necessary to consider interactions among various factors. As shown in Fig. 23, these include: (1) phase transformations, (2) latent heat, (3) thermal stress, (4) transformation stress and
plasticity, (5) heat generation due to deformation, and (6) mechanically induced transformation.
Science seeks to understand and explain our world, be that its physical composition
(geology), chemical composition (chemistry), the way its composite matter interacts
(physics), or the organisms that inhabit it (biology). We can only get an idea of what
life is all about by piecing together information from each discipline to give us the big
We don’t have to look very far to realize that it is difficult, if not impossible, to
separate biology from chemistry. After all, our body is a bag of chemicals.
Many visual devices and gadgets preceded cinema, too many to
list here in detail. A widespread and well-known one was the camera
obscura, first constructed in 1645, which projected views in a dark room,
for painters. Around the same time Anastasius Kircher built a special
room to project images with mirrors, which looked somewhat like a
cinema. A specialised building with many people using specialised
equipment was necessary to project the images.
But with other POPs the transition to safer alternatives will require more effort.
Alternatives may be more expensive and their manufacture and use more complicated. That
could put developing countries in an awkward spot – struggling from day to day, the world's
poor tend to use what they can afford and what is available. So it is not enough for the
Convention simply to say No to its target list of POPs: It must also help governments find a
way to say Yes to replacement solutions.
Take the case of DDT.
The use of copper and its alloys by humans goes back thousands of years. Probably
copper is the most ancient metal extracted and processed by mankind. With good
strength and ductility, ease of processing and good availability, copper has been for
millennia an excellent material for creating objects, jewelry and tools of daily use or
components with high technological content.
The nature of environmental challenges has changed considerably in recent decades.
Nonetheless, the global nature of environmental problems has long been known,
as issues such as pollution, loss of biodiversity, global warming, ozone depletion and
tropical deforestation do not respect international borders.
One can argue, however, that it is only in recent years that these problems have
become widespread matters of concern among the general public. The issue of
climate change was at the forefront of the debate on global environmental problems in
Coverage levels that are higher than CAT are called “buy-up” or “additional” coverage.
additional premium paid by the producer, and partially subsidized by the government, a producer
can “buy up” the 50/55 catastrophic coverage to any equivalent level of coverage between 50/100
and 75/100 (i.e., up to 75% of “normal” crop yield and 100% of the estimated market price). In
limited areas, production can be insured up to the 85/100 level of coverage.
APH policies account for more than 90% of yield-based policies sold.
By 1945 Blue Cross had captured 59% of the health insurance market. The idea of prepaid health insurance was
solidified on the American landscape in 1954, when the Internal Revenue Code codified the deductibility of health
insurance payments. The employer deduction significantly reduced the cost of health insurance for consumers eligi-
ble for an employer-provided group plan.
The federal government cast the Blue Cross Blue Shield approach in regulatory concrete in 1965 when Congress
passed the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
Real estate is valued for its cash flow, both its operating cash flow during the time that you own
the property and its likely net sale proceeds when you go to sell the property at some time in the
Since real estate is purchased today based on its ability to produce cash flow in the future, tools
are needed which help calculate the present value of future cash flows. These tools are readily
available, are discussed in Tool Kits #2 and #3, and involve the concept of “capitalization”.
All capitalization tools convert future income...