According to American Society for Testing and Materials' corrosion
glossary, corrosion is defined as "the chemical or electrochemical
reaction between a material, usually a metal, and
its environment that produces a deterioration of the material
and its properties".1
Other definitions include Fontana's description that corrosion
is the extractive metallurgy in reverse,2 which is expected
since metals thermodynamically are less stable in their elemental
forms than in their compound forms as ores.
Catalysis and Electrocatalysis at Nanoparticle Surfaces reflects many of the new
developments of catalysis, surface science, and electrochemistry. The first three
chapters indicate the sophistication of the theory in simulating catalytic processes
that occur at the solid–liquid and solid–gas interface in the presence of external
potential. The first chapter, by Koper and colleagues, discusses the theory of
modeling of catalytic and electrocatalytic reactions.
Electrochemistry, long-time corner stone for fundamental chemistry and physics, now
plays an important role in many areas of applied science and technology. A very broad
range of applications of electrochemical principles and technologies is found in materials
science. Electrochemical deposition of metals and alloys, formation of oxide films and
semi-conductors, corrosion and corrosion protection, new polymer materials that can
switch between metallic conductivity and semi-conducting properties, and new applications
in fast-evolving nanotechnologies are just some of the examples....
Over the last decade, PV technology has shown the potential to become a major source of
power generation for the world – with robust and continuous growth even during times of
financial and economic crisis. That growth is expected to continue in the years ahead as
worldwide awareness of the advantages of PV increases. At the end of 2009, the world’s PV
cumulative installed capacity was approaching 23 GW. One year later it was 40 GW. In 2011,
more than 69 GW are installed globally and...