The first version of this text was written to serve as lecture notes for a first term geology course in “Minerals and Rocks” at Aarhus Universityin Denmarkin 2003. In Aarhus this course is accompanied by a general “Introduction to Geology” course that presents, for example, the structure of the Earth, plate tectonics and paleontology. These topics are therefore not treated here, and some knowledge of the Earth´s structure and plate tectonicsis assumed.
4-5 Rocky Earth 6-7 A volcanic beginning 8-9 Making of a rock 10-11 Igneous rock 12-13 Sedimentary rock 14-15 Metamorphic rock 16-17 Rocks from space 18-19 Hidden beauty 20-21 Breakdown 22-23 Carving a path 24-25 Crystals 26-27 What a gem!
Written and edited by Caroline Bingham Designed by Helen Chapman Publishing manager Susan Leonard Managing art editor Clare Shedden Jacket design Chris Drew Picture researcher Sarah Stewart-Richardson Production Shivani Pandey DTP Designer Almudena Díaz Consultant Kim Dennis-Bryan PhD, FZS With thanks to Victoria Long for design assistance.
Con Voi range in Vietnam was a southeastward continuity of the Red River Ailaoshan tertiary shear zone, a boundary between Indochina and south China blocks during the southeastward extrusion of Indochina block. It composed of high grade metamorphic and strongly deformed rocks with various protoliths. The foliation and schistosity folded to produce a large antiform structure during the late phase of ductile deformation and exhumation.
The studied area is situated in the easternmost of Indochina (south of Central Vietnam), covers the boundary between Kon Tum massif and Truong Son belt, where exposed a lot of intensively deformed ductile shear zones. The study result shows that those shear zones have undergone strong deformation with mylonites in high temperature metamorphism accompanied. The
Đá trầm tích và đá macma được đặt trong những điều kiện môi trường khác biệt môi trường nguyên thủy, chúng sẽ biến chất. Đá biến chất được thành lập ở nơi rất sâu trong vỏ trái đất và chúng ta không trực tiếp quan sát được. Đá biến chất chiếm tỉ lệ khoảng 15% ở vỏ địa cầu.
.Đặc điểm chung
Có cấu tạo dạng lớp song song nhau, dễ tách thành những phiến mỏng. (trừ đá hoa và quaczit.
The Geological Field Guide Series
The Field Description of Metamorphic Rocks, Norman Fry The Mapping of Geological Structures, Ken McClay Field Geophysics, Fourth edition John Milsom The Field Description of Igneous Rocks, Second edition Dougal Jerram and Nick Petford Sedimentary Rocks in the Field, Fourth edition Maurice Tucker
Earth Science is made up of many diﬀerent areas of geological study. Since
the Earth contains everything from clouds (meteorology) and oceans (marine
biology) to fossils (paleontology) and earthquakes (geology/plate tectonics),
there is a lot to choose from!
In presenting this book, John Ashurst and I have
many people to thank, particularly Ian Bristow for his
admirable introduction to the subject of conservation
on which successive contributors have built;
and David Honeyborne, whose name has long been
associated with pioneering work in the field of stone
weathering. Many others are owed much, and it is a
debt which cannot adequately be repaid.
For my part I must thank John Ashurst, first and
foremost for the constant aid and encouragement he
Phuoc Hiep corundum occurrence has been discovered recently in the Central part of Vietnam (Quang Nam Province). Common protoliths in the region are high‐grade metamorphic rocks (typically of amphibolite‐granulite facies), such as garnet‐bearing amphibolites, gneisses and schists, intruded by igneous formations of different composition and age. To date, the rubies and fancy sapphires have been found in secondary, mostly alluvial deposits.
Recrystallization and related phenomena that occur during thermomechanical
processing of all types of crystalline materials are areas of intensive research.
However, particular subject matters of research differ depending on scientific
In geology, recrystallization is a process that occurs during natural deformation of
rocks and minerals subjected to high temperature and pressure. Grains, atoms or
molecules can be packed closer together. Under the influence of these metamorphic
processes, new mineral grains can be created in crystalline form.
Petrology, New Perspectives and Applications is designed for advanced graduate courses and professionals in petrology. The book includes eight chapters that are focused on the recent advances and application of modern petrologic and geochemical methods for the understanding of igneous, metamorphic and even sedimentary rocks. Research studies contained in this volume provide an overview of application of modern petrologic techniques to rocks of diverse origins.