Metaphors pervade our language because they are elastic enough to allow a speaker to express an affective viewpoint on a topic without committing to a specific meaning. This balance of expressiveness and indeterminism means that metaphors are just as useful for eliciting information as they are for conveying information.
This paper presents a method for interpreting metaphoric language in the context of a portable natural language interface. The method licenses metaphoric uses via coercions between incompatible ontological sorts. The machinery allows both previously-known and unexpected metaphoric uses to be correctly interpreted and evaluated with respect to the backend expert system.
Although some progress has been made in the area of metaphor understanding, little has been made in metaphor generation. Current solutions rely upon a rather direct encoding of alternatives. There is no computational theory that can account for metaphor generation from basic principles. Although generating all types of metaphors from basic principles is very difficult, there is a subset of metaphors that are prevalent in natural expressions and perhaps more amenable to computational approaches. We call these transparentlymotivated (T-M) metaphors (Jones and McCoy 1992).
We illustrate how the use of metaphorical views for reasoning with metaphor requires the mapping of information such as event shape, event rate and mental/emotional states from the source domain to the target domain. Such mappings are domain-independent and can be implemented by means of rules we call View Neutral Mapping Adjuncts (VNMAs). We give a list of the main VNMAs that appear to be required, and show how they can be incorporated into a pre-existing system (ATT-Meta) for metaphorical reasoning. ...
The aim of the thesis is to apply the theory in cognitive linguistics to Vietnamese to establish the conceptual structure and conceptual domain “food”, discover the target domains, the source domains, mapping system and the mapping mechanism among the conceptual domains; codifying metaphorical notion of "food" in Vietnamese in order to study cognitive characteristics and Vietnamese cultural identity through conceptual metaphor of "food”.
Automatic processing of metaphor can be clearly divided into two subtasks: metaphor recognition (distinguishing between literal and metaphorical language in a text) and metaphor interpretation (identifying the intended literal meaning of a metaphorical expression). Both of them have been repeatedly addressed in NLP. This paper is the ﬁrst comprehensive and systematic review of the existing computational models of metaphor, the issues of metaphor annotation in corpora and the available resources. ...
We present a game-theoretic model of bargaining over a metaphor in the context of political communication, ﬁnd its equilibrium, and use it to rationalize observed linguistic behavior. We argue that game theory is well suited for modeling discourse as a dynamic resulting from a number of conﬂicting pressures, and suggest applications of interest to computational linguists.
In this paper we provide a formalization of a set of default rules that we claim are required for the transfer of information such as causation, event rate and duration in the interpretation of metaphor. Such rules are domain-independent and are identiﬁed as invariant adjuncts to any conceptual metaphor. We also show a way of embedding the invariant mappings in a semantic framework.
Each generalized metaphor contains a recognition network, a basic mapping, additional transfer mappings, and an implicit intention component. It is argued that the method reduces metaphor interpretation from a reconstruction to a recognition task.
Metaphorically, achievements, ideas, and theories are often seen as buildings, with an idea or the
process of achieving something being similar to the process of building, and the failure of something
being similar to the destruction of a building. Metaphorically, ideas are also like plants, and
developing an idea is like getting plants to grow.
Healing with Stories
Your Casebook Collection for Using Therapeutic Metaphors
George W. Burns
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
.Praise for Healing with Stories
“George Burns has become the ‘metaphor man.’ In this volume he showcases some of today’s best therapists healing with metaphors. These rich teaching stories provide valuable tools for students as well as professionals. I consider this volume must reading for anyone wanting to improve their psychotherapy service.
Metaphor - Lối nói ẩn dụ (Phần I)
.Việc hiểu cách sử dụng lối nói ẩn dụ trong cuộc sống hàng ngày là rất quan trọng với học viên tiếng Anh vì người học có thể hiểu lối nói ẩn dụ gốc và phát sinh khi nghe thấy hoặc đọc thấy. Trong tiếng Anh, hàng ngàn từ có nghĩa ẩn dụ.
Trong lãnh vực ngôn ngữ học tri nhận, ẩn dụ khái niệm dùng để chỉ sự hiểu biết của một ý tưởng hay khái niệm này thông qua một ý niệm khác. Phép ẩn dụ này nhận được rất nhiều sự quan tâm trong việc giảng dạy ngôn ngữ trên toàn thế giới. Tuy nhiên, có rất ít nghiên cứu về việc sử dụng phép ẩn dụ khái niệm trong lớp học ngôn ngữ ở Việt Nam.