Some people believe that if cancer has spread
to other parts of the body (called metastatic
cancer), it is the same as advanced cancer. This
is not necessarily true. You can have widespread
cancer, but it can still be treatable and sometimes
curable. Examples of this are testicular cancer and
certain types of leukemia and lymphoma.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Multiple right-sided pulmonary nodules: metastatic cancer or resectable early stage tumor?
Other Nonmelanoma Cutaneous Malignancies
Neoplasms of cutaneous adnexa and sarcomas of fibrous, mesenchymal, fatty, and vascular tissues make up 1–2% of NMSC (Table 83-6). Some can portend a poor prognosis such as Merkel cell carcinoma, which is a neural crestderived, highly aggressive malignancy that exhibits a metastatic rate of 75% and a 5-year survival rate of 30–40%. Others, such as the human herpes virus 8-induced, HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma, exhibit a more indolent course.
Head and Neck Cancer: Treatment Patients with head and neck cancer can be categorized into three clinical groups: those with localized disease, those with locally or regionally advanced disease, and those with recurrent and/or metastatic disease. Comorbidities associated with tobacco and alcohol abuse can affect treatment outcome and define long-term risks for patients who are cured of their disease.
Nearly one-third of patients have localized disease; that is, T1 or T2 (stage I or stage II) lesions without detectable lymph node involvement or distant metastases.
The most important prognostic factor is the stage at the time of presentation. Fortunately, most melanomas are diagnosed in clinical stages I and II. The revised American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for melanoma is based on microscopic primary tumor depth (Breslow's thickness), presence of ulceration, evidence of nodal involvement, and presence of metastatic disease to internal sites (Table 83-3). Certain anatomic sites may affect the prognosis.
Treatment of Metastatic Disease
Melanoma can metastasize to any internal organ, the brain being a particularly common site. Metastatic melanoma is generally incurable, with survival in patients with visceral metastases generally
This book describes a course of cancer growth starting from normal cells to cancerous form and the genomic instability, the cancer treatment as well as its prevention in form of the invention of a vaccine. Some diseases are also discussed in detail, such as breast cancer, leucaemia, cervical cancer, and glioma. Understanding cancer through its molecular mechanism is needed to reduce the cancer incidence.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) and androgen receptors, members of the steroid hormone family of nuclear receptors, are targets of inhibition by drugs used to treat breast and prostate cancers, respectively. Tamoxifen, a partial agonist and antagonist of ER function, can mediate tumor regression in metastatic breast cancer and can prevent disease recurrence in the adjuvant setting, saving thousands of lives each year. Tamoxifen binds to the ER and modulates its transcriptional activity, inhibiting activity in the breast but promoting activity in bone and uterine epithelium.
Oncogene signaling pathways are activated during tumor progression and promote metastatic potential.
This figure shows a cancer cell that has undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) under the influence of several environmental signals. Critical components include activated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met pathways, as well as changes in the expression of adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell and cellextracellular matrix interactions.
The bevacizumab experience suggests that inhibition of the VEGF pathway will be most efficacious when combined with agents that directly target tumor cells. This also appears to be the case in the development of small-molecule inhibitors (SMI) that target VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity but are also inhibitory to other kinases that are expressed by tumor cells and important for their proliferation and survival.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
The natural history of SCC depends on both tumor and host characteristics. Tumors arising on actinically damaged skin have a lower metastatic potential than those on protected surfaces. The metastatic frequency of cutaneous SCC, reported at 0.3–5.2%, occurs most frequently in regional draining lymph nodes. Tumors occurring on the lower lip and ear have metastatic potentials approaching 13 and 11%, respectively. The metastatic potential of SCC arising in scars, chronic ulcerations, and genital or mucosal surfaces is higher.
Endocrine Therapy Normal breast tissue is estrogen-dependent. Both primary and metastatic breast cancer may retain this phenotype. The best means of ascertaining whether a breast cancer is hormone-dependent is through analysis of estrogen and progesterone receptor levels on the tumor. Tumors that are positive for the estrogen receptor and negative for the progesterone receptor have a response rate of ~30%. Tumors that have both receptors have a response rate approaching 70%. If neither receptor is present, the objective response rates are ...
Pancreatic Cancer: Treatment Symptoms and the associated impaired performance status are significant issues in the management of patients with pancreatic cancer, as they can have a marked negative impact on the ability to safely deliver chemotherapy or perform curative surgery. For example, patients with malabsorption secondary to pancreatic insufficiency may be treated with pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Indeed effective symptom management is as important a therapeutic goal as survival prolongation.
No matter where a cancer may spread, it is always named for the place where it started. For
example, breast cancer that has spread to the liver is still called breast cancer, not liver
cancer. Likewise, prostate cancer that has spread to the bone is metastatic prostate cancer, not
Different types of cancer can behave very differently. For example, lung cancer and breast
cancer are very different diseases. They grow at different rates and respond to different
treatments. That is why people with cancer need treatment that is aimed at their particular
kind of cancer.
Gastric (Nonlymphoid) Sarcoma Leiomyosarcomas and GISTs make up 1–3% of gastric neoplasms. They most frequently involve the anterior and posterior walls of the gastric fundus and often ulcerate and bleed. Even those lesions that appear benign on histologic examination may behave in a malignant fashion. These tumors rarely invade adjacent viscera and characteristically do not metastasize to lymph nodes, but they may spread to the liver and lungs. The treatment of choice is surgical resection. Combination chemotherapy should be reserved for patients with metastatic disease.
Chemotherapy Unlike many other epithelial malignancies, breast cancer responds to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, including anthracyclines, alkylating agents, taxanes, and antimetabolites. Multiple combinations of these agents have been found to improve response rates somewhat, but they have had little effect on duration of response or survival. The choice among multidrug combinations frequently depends on whether adjuvant chemotherapy was administered and, if so, what type.
We previously showed that the rat dipeptidyl peptidase IV (rDPP IV)
monoclonal antibody (mAb) 6A3 greatly inhibits the pericellular polymeric
fibronectin-mediated metastatic cancer cell adhesion to rDPP IV.
QWLRRI in rDPP IV has been proposed as the putative fibronectin-binding site.
Being diagnosed with cancer is devastating. But when the cancer cells have to spread
to form secondary colonies, the prognosis for the patient is worse. If meaningful
improvements in survival are to occur, then control of metastasis will be a
foundation. Relatively little is known about the control of the metastatic process at
the molecular level. This volume begins to explore our current knowledge regarding
the underlying molecular and biochemical mechanisms controlling the metastatic
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: A randomized phase II trial of mitoxantrone, estramustine and vinorelbine or bcl-2 modulation with 13-cis retinoic acid, interferon and paclitaxel in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer: ECOG 3899