Pancreatic Cancer: Treatment Symptoms and the associated impaired performance status are significant issues in the management of patients with pancreatic cancer, as they can have a marked negative impact on the ability to safely deliver chemotherapy or perform curative surgery. For example, patients with malabsorption secondary to pancreatic insufficiency may be treated with pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Indeed effective symptom management is as important a therapeutic goal as survival prolongation.
No matter where a cancer may spread, it is always named for the place where it started. For
example, breast cancer that has spread to the liver is still called breast cancer, not liver
cancer. Likewise, prostate cancer that has spread to the bone is metastatic prostate cancer, not
Different types of cancer can behave very differently. For example, lung cancer and breast
cancer are very different diseases. They grow at different rates and respond to different
treatments. That is why people with cancer need treatment that is aimed at their particular
kind of cancer.
Cause-speciﬁc survival is commonly estimated in cancer clinical trials and only those deaths
which can be attributed to the cancer in question are considered to be events, while all other
deaths are considered censorings. Using cause-speciﬁc survival to estimate net survival
requires that reliably coded information on cause of death is available. The distinguishing
feature of survival analysis is that at the end of the follow-up period the event (such as
death due to cancer) will probably not have occurred for all patients.
Background: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human tumors due to its high potential of local invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study was to characterize the membrane proteomes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells of primary and metastatic origins, and to identify potential target proteins related to metastasis of pancreatic cancer.
The two study cohorts are located in different Federal States of Germany. The Saarland
cohort provides information on cancer incidence and mortality of the Aussiedler, whereas
the North Rhine Westphalian cohort provides information on mortality only.
Aussiedler are exposed to different kinds of risk factors in different times of their lives.
Before migration they are exposed to risk factors in their countries of origin, which have
different disease patterns than Germany.
Socioeconomic disparities in cancer incidence and mortality in the United States persist and
remain an urgent public health problem. Recent studies of cancer and both individual- and area-
level socioeconomic status (SES) have found low SES or poverty to be associated with higher
incidence of lung, cervical, stomach, oral, and esophageal cancer.
Also, a lower incidence of
breast cancer and melanoma has been observed among persons residing in poorer areas.
Currently, where business and management topics are included in the veterinary
curriculum, they tend to be incorporated under the banner of ‘Professional Studies’, a strand
of education running though most veterinary degrees, which, as its label suggests, covers
the professional behaviour aspects of veterinary medicine.
We know the interventions that can save most women’s lives. If every
woman had access to essential maternal care, 74% of maternal deaths could
be prevented4. If all women had access to self–controlled means of HIV/
AIDS protection and were in a position within society to use these methods,
millions of HIV/AIDS deaths could be prevented. Thus, we do not so much
need new technology, as we need to ensure universal access, utilization and equity.
But ensuring universal access, utilization and equity means that our health
services cannot continue to function as “business as usual.
When in the closed position, the orifice is obscured by the anterior and posterior leaflets.
The anterior comprises about one half to two thirds of this area, the posterior comprises
about one third to one half of this area. The point of attachment of the anterior leaflet
comprises one third of the circumference of the annulus (the fibrous area) and the posterior
leaflets comprises two thirds of the circumference of the annulus (the muscular area). The
fibrous support of the anterior leaflet is fixed, the muscular support of the posterior leaflet
can enlarge and does so when...
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of elderly people in Joaçaba - SC, in Southern Brazil. A survey based on systematic sampling of clusters was carried out with 183 elderly people that belong to old age groups. The survey was conducted in order to assess the oral conditions of the participants (use of and need for prosthesis) based on the criteria from the World Health Organization publication “Oral Health Surveys, Basic Methods”, 4th edition. The oral health impact profile (OHIP) was used to evaluate the impact of...
Some results of indoor particulate (PM) concentrations measurements in relation to type
of stove and fuel from Latin-America are presented in table 2.1. The improved stoves,
such as the plancha, produce PM 2.5 or PM 3.5 levels that are often only 20 percent of
concentration levels from an open fire, and are even found to be less than 10 percent of
that of an open fire in a study in Guatemala by McCracken and Smith (1998). The
reduction in PM 2.5 seems to be even larger than reductions in PM 10. However the
This study has also consulted other documents published elsewhere, such as Sarma
(1986) and Mink (1987). Sarma (1986), a Research Report published by IFPRI
(Washington), is concerned with the analysis and projections (to 2000) of use of cereals for
livestock feed in developing countries. Mink (1987) has addressed the use of corn in
livestock feed and the future of the corn economy in Indonesia. The study focussed on
current levels of corn use and likely future growth of corn-based livestock feeds in
Semi-intact cells are cells whose plasma membrane has been permeabilized with detergent
or toxins, and can be referred to as “cell-type test tubes” (Fig. 1). We use a bacterial poreforming
toxin, streptolysin O (SLO), to permeabilize the cells. At 4℃, SLO binds to
cholesterol in plasma membranes. At warmer temperatures, SLO assembles to form
amphiphilic oligomers, which results in the generation of small, stable transmembrane
pores (Bhakdi et al., 1985).
A manager may be able to generate higher returns than
an OE benchmark before costs, yet after costs investors’ returns may
be below the benchmark. If a fund can beat the OE benchmark on
an after cost basis, we say that the fund adds value for investors, to
distinguish this situation from one where the manager has investment
ability, but either extracts the rents from this ability in the form of fees
and expenses, or dissipates it through trading costs. We will say that
a manager has investment ability if the managed portfolio outperforms
the OE portfolio on a before-cost basis.
Given the virtual absence of formal channels for care and support of the older population, older
Cambodians are dependent largely on their families, and particularly their adult children, for any
assistance needed. Table 7 indicates the number of living children of the current generation of elderly
Cambodians. Although many elderly Cambodians lost children during the tumultuous history of the last
several decades, sustained high fertility has resulted in substantial numbers of children who still survive.
Club, Eurocard in connection with MasterCard, Visa) has grown from approximately 10 million at the
end of 1994 to more than 18.8 million at the end of 2001. At the same time, the number of acceptance
points (especially in the retail sector and the hotel business) has increased substantially. In 2001,
German cardholders made payments by credit card amounting to approximately EUR 37.2 billion. In
spite of this, credit cards are still used far less than other payment instruments (eg debit cards) in the
Federal Republic of Germany.
Tham khảo sách 'land-based pollution sources: a global synopsis of land-based pollui on sources science and transboundary management', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ môi trường phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
When priorities are misaligned, the team will be too. This
disconnect explains why the teams focus on the short-term
objectives versus the longer-term vision. In Figure 1 at left, we
illustrate the common misalignments within sales and marketing
today. Do any of these look familiar to you?
The newest book by customer strategy gurus Don Peppers
and Martha Rogers, Ph.D.
Mexican market researchers have defined three “Socio-Economic Levels” (SEL;
niveles socioeconómicos) of Mexico’s urban population which is of particular
interest to marketers.
1 The high Socio-Economic Level (SEL) makes up around 8%
of the urban population of Mexico (see Table 4). This is beyond any doubt the
most interesting customer segment for Swiss exporters of high quality consumer
products. Parts of the Medium SEL (which totals 29% of the urban population)
might also be in a position to afford Swiss products.