S RECENTLY AS a few years ago, many
nuclear medicine physicians would have taken
the position that Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine
is now a static field. Similar perhaps in many ways
to bone imaging, they would have suggested that all
that is left to do is to make some detailed refinements
of the techniques, but the big discoveries had
been made. This issue and the second part of this
issue of Seminars in Nuclear Medicine will certainly
discredit that point of view. There are many,
many new developments in this field.
B REAST CANCER is the most common malignancy
in women. At least 180,000 new cases
were diagnosed in 1997, more than double that of
the next most common neoplasm, lung cancer.
According to the American Cancer Society over
40,000 American women succumb to this disease
Early detection of breast cancer by routine
mammographic screening of women without clinical
signs or symptoms facilitates earlier treatment
and has enhanced survival. As pointed out by Dr.
The LmbB1 protein, participating in the biosynthesis of
lincomycin,was heterologously expressed inEscherichia coli,
purified in its active form, and characterized as a dimer of
identical subunits. Methods for purification and analysis of
the LmbB1 reaction product were developed. Molecular
mass and fragmentation pattern of the product revealed by
capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry were in agree-ment with its proposed structure, 4-(3-carboxy-3-oxo-propenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid.
In North America maize is widely utilised due to the suitability of the climate and advances
in Genetically Modified (GM) technology which assures consistency of the crop. In areas
where conditions for growing maize are not suitable or irrigation is not possible, other crops
containing high levels of starch such barley and wheat offer good substitutes. These crops
are not harvested until they reach a late “milky dough” stage of maturation so that the levels
of starch are maximised.
Microcalorimetry and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to conduct thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of the scission of calf thymus DNA catalyzed by bleomycin A5 (BLM-A5) in the presence of ferrous ion and oxygen. The molar reaction enthalpy for the cleavage, the Michaelis– Menten constant for calf thymus DNA and the turnover number of BLM-A5 were calculated by a novel thermokinetic method for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction to be )577 ± 19 kJÆmol)1, 20.4 ± 3.8 lM and 2.28 ± 0.49 · 10)2 s)1, respectively, at 37.0 °C. This DNA cleavage was a largely exothermic reaction....
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the
authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences....
Two studies in Africa evaluated the feasibility of using two visual inspection methods for cervical cancer
screening and assessed their performance in the field; the methods were VIA and visual inspection with Lugol’s
iodine (VILI). Women in the studies were between 25 and 59 years of age, with at least 73 percent younger than
Most of the epidemiological studies which compared breast
cancer risk of active smokers to women who were not
smokers (regardless of their passive smoke exposure) have
found no association of smoking and breast cancer risk. But
several studies found that women who smoked had a
decreased breast cancer risk. It is not uncommon for
epidemiological studies to come to different assessments of
health risk, especially when, as in these studies, the associated
risk is not large.
Cytochrome P450BM3is a self-sufficient fatty acid mono-oxygenase consisting of a diflavin (FAD/FMN) reductase
domain and a heme domain fused together in a single
polypeptide chain. The multidomain structure makes it an
ideal model system for studying the mechanism of electron
transfer and for understanding P450 systems in general.
Here we report the redox properties of the cyto-chrome P450BM3 wild-type holoenzyme, and its isolated
FADreductase andP450 heme domains, when immobilized
in a didodecyldimethylammonium bromide film cast on
an edge-plane graphite electrode....
Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) are frequently
used for the down-regulation of protein expression.Because
the majority of potential antisense sequences lacks effect-iveness, fast screening methods for the selection of effective
AS-ODNs are needed.We describe a new cellular screening
assay for the evaluationof the potency and specificityof new
Solvent casting property for the scaffolds preparation is very simple, easy and inexpensive.
It does not require any large equipment; it is totally based upon the evaporation of some
solvent in order to form scaffolds by one of the two routes. One method is to dip the mold
into polymeric solution and allow sufficient time to draw off the solution; as a result a layer
of polymeric membrane is created. Other method is to add the polymeric solution into a
mold and provide the sufficient time to evaporate the solvent that create a layer of
polymeric membrane, which adhere to...
In morocco access to antenatal services is limited and many HIV-
positive pregnant women are not identified for lack of HIV testing,
especially in rural areas. The fear of stigma and discrimination is a
major barrier for women to get tested, both at home and in health
care settings. Breast-feeding is contraindicated by the Ministry of
Health (an outdated recommendation), but formula is provided in
only three cities and only 56 percent of the rural population has
access to safe drinking water.
After researching literature on addiction and film,
I chose the films for the study and viewed each one many
times, specifically looking for socioeconomic representations
of characters, treatment of different races, sexes, and sexual
preferences, methods of production as they relate to addicted
characters and drug usage, and the depiction of treatment/
self-help groups. I then outlined the narrative of each film
and compared the uses and meanings brought to addicts,
addiction, and substances. I found that these movies construct
a fairly unified image of treatment.
Process costing is used in situations where homogeneous products or services are produced on
a continuous basis. Costs flow through the manufacturing accounts in basically the same way in
a process costing system as in a job-order costing system. However, costs are accumulated by
department rather than by job in process costing.
In process costing, the equivalent units of production must be determined for each cost cat-
egory in each department.
In the traditional region of Northern Nigeria, Pathfinder has struggled to promote the use of modern
contraceptive methods to delay and space pregnancies. Traditional communities in this area generally see
children as a gift from God and, assured that He will provide for their families, resist limiting their family size
or spacing women’s pregnancies. Sexuality is not openly discussed, so reaching families with RH/FP information
and services has been difficult.
Ovarian cancer is the most common fatal cancer of the female reproductive tract in
industrialized countries. At the time of writing, it is the fourth most common cause of
cancer death in women in the U.K., after breast, lung, and colorectal cancer, with a
lifetime risk of approximately 2% (1). It tends to present at an advanced stage, with
limited prospects for treatment and generally poor survival.
The data items to be collected by a registry are dictated by the purpose for
which the registry has been established, by the method of data collection
used and by the resources available to the registry. However, the emphasis
should be on the quality of the data collected rather than on the quantity. It is
advisable that registries in developing countries should start by attempting
to collect only information on the basic items listed in .
A unique registration number (cancer registry number) is assigned by the
registry to each patient.
The abnormal lump or spot may be found
using mammography or other testing
methods. A procedure called a biopsy
removes a piece of tissue from the lump or
spot to find out if cancer cells are present.
The pathology report will tell you what
kinds of cells are present.
is the breast cancer invasive?
If breast cancer is found, it’s important
to know whether the cancer has spread
outside the milk ducts or lobules of the
breast where it started.
Non-invasive cancers stay within the milk
ducts or milk lobules in the breast. They
do not grow into or invade normal...
Many recent studies have reported that microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis
and function are related to the molecular mechanisms of various clinical
diseases. Several methods, including northern blotting and DNA chip anal-yses, are capable of assessing miRNA-production patterns in cells. How-ever, the development of repetitive monitoring of the miRNA-production
profile in a noninvasive manner is demanded for the application of
miRNAs to human medicine.