Methods of epidemiology

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  • Interventional cardiovascular medicine has evolved from an extremely crude method of opening femoral arteries initiated by Dotter, to a fi eld that has now been recognized as having a suffi cient fund of knowledge to require boards sanctioned by the American Board of Internal Medicine. From Andreas Gruentzig’s development of the noncompliant balloon method, we have seen an explosion of bioengineering technology.

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  • The essential role of epidemiology is to improve the health of populations. Advances in epidemiology research are expected to play a central role in medicine and public health in the 21st century by providing information for disease prediction and prevention. This book represents an overview on the diverse threads of epidemiological research in that captures the new and exciting themes that have been emerging over recent years.

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  • Our goal in creating the Methods & New Frontiers in Neuroscience Series is to present the insights of experts on emerging experimental techniques and theoretical concepts that are, or will be at the vanguard of Neuroscience. Books in the series will cover topics ranging from methods to investigate apoptosis, to modern techniques for neural ensemble recordings in behaving animals.

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  • However, those runners who have the patience to develop speed for shorter distances will realise even greater benefits when they decide to take the step up the marathon. Building speed before endurance is always the best method of enhancing long-term performance. This article will give you a taste of speed training as it includes an eight-week training program designed to develop your running so you can complete a 10k race in your desired time. The program assumes a basic level of fitness, allowing you to complete the first week relatively comfortably.

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  • Many changes have been made in this book from the last edition. I hope it will be helpful in providing a good review of public health and preventive medicine. I also hope you will appreciate how applicable this field is in everyday clinical practice (even biostatistics principles!) and what an important impact prevention can have on the health of a population. Many thanks to the medical students, Lucy Chie, Megan Schwarzman, and Natalie Holt, for their thoughtful comments.

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  • The development and rapid implementation of molecular genotyping methods have revolutionized the possibility for differentiation and classification of microorganisms at the subspecies level. Investigation of the species diversity is required to determine molecular relatedness of isolates for epidemiological studies. Methods for molecular epidemiology of microorganisms must be highly reproducible and provide effective discrimination of epidemiologically unrelated strains.

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  • Statistical Methods in Medical Research is a peer reviewed scholarly journal and is the leading vehicle for articles in all the main areas of medical statistics and an essential reference for all medical statisticians. This unique journal is devoted solely to statistics and medicine and aims to keep professionals abreast of the many powerful statistical techniques now available to the medical profession.

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  • In order to address these issues, we have attempted to detail many of the key relevant advances in signal processing. Chapter 1 describes the physiological background and the specific autonomic mechanisms which regulate the beat-to-beat changes of timing and morphology in the ECG, together with the cause and effect of breakdowns in this mechanism. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the primary issues that should be taken into account when designing an ECG collection system.

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  • It is an exciting time for the discipline of cognitive neuroscience. In the past 10 years we have witnessed an explosion in the development and advancement of methods that allow us to precisely examine the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging, for example, has provided markedly improved spatial and temporal resolution of brain structure and function, which has led to answers to new questions, and the reexamination of old questions.

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  • Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer diagnosed in Western populations. Autopsy studies have shown that with increasing age, the majority of men will develop microscopic foci of cancer (often termed “latent” prostate cancer) and that this is true in populations that are at both high and low risk for the invasive form of the disease (1). However, only a small percentage of men will develop invasive prostate cancer. The prevalence of prostate cancer is, thus, very common; but to most men, prostate cancer will be only incidental to their health and death....

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  • The aim of the Handbook of Diagnostic Endocrinology is to provide a comprehensive overview of current approaches to the diagnosis of endocrine disorders. Our ability to diagnose patients with diseases of the endocrine systems is expanding exponentially with the development of new and more reliable assay methods and the incorporation of both molecular and genetic approaches into our understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases.

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  • The closing years of the 19th century and the start of the 20th century witnessed the emergence of microbiology and immunology as discrete scientific disciplines, and in the work of Roux and Yersin, perhaps the first benefits of their synergy—immunotherapy against bacterial infection. As we advance into the new millennium, microbiology and immunology again offer a conceptual leap forward as antibody phage display gains increasing acceptance as the definitive technology for monoclonal production and unleashes new opportunities in immunotherapy, drug discovery, and functional genomics....

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  • In the past 15 years, molecular biologists and geneticists have uncovered some of the most basic mechanisms by means of which normal stem cells in a certain organ or tissue develop into cancerous tumors. This biological knowledge serves as a basis for various models of carcinogenesis.

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  • The usual approach of epidemiological studies is to measure the association between at least one specific pollutant (e.g. PM, NOx, CO or O3) and health outcomes. These specific components are usually highly correlated with other pollutants and are considered indicative of the complex pollutant mixture. It is unclear how much the associations reported in epidemiological studies represent the independent effects of specific pollutants.

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  • The authors of this book are American and European neurologists. This book is termed a “neuromuscular atlas” and is designed to help in the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases at all levels of the peripheral nervous system. This book is written for students, residents, physicians and neurologists who do not specialize in neuromuscular diseases. The first chapter describes the numerous tools used in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease. These include history taking, the physical examination, laboratory values, electrophysiology, biopsy and genetics.

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  • Several filers reported suspected Ponzi schemes where subjects gathered client funds for investment in commercial real estate or real estate securities without actually purchasing the underlying assets. A hedge fund claimed to invest millions in CMBS and credit derivatives, but the filer found no evidence of CMBS ownership. The hedge fund primarily bought long-term certificates of deposit earning minimal interest, which were inconsistent with the fund’s investment strategy. In addition, the filer noted many small client deposits, consistent with a Ponzi scheme.

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  • All of us like to think that our actions and reactions are a result of logical thought processes, but the fact is that suggestion influences our thinking a great deal more than logic. Consciously or unconsciously, our feelings about almost everything are largely molded by ready-made opinions and attitudes fostered by our mass methods of communication. We cannot buy a bar of soap or a filtered cigarette without paying tribute to the impact of suggestion. Right or wrong, most of us place more confidence in what "they" say than we do in our own powers of reason.

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  • This emphasis on the spectacular and exotic, consistent with an oppositional or marginal view of the consumer, is often also emphasised in academic writing on counterfeiting. Consumers of counterfeits are often represented through anecdotal narratives which serve as a proxy for deeper understanding of consumer motivations. For example, Lasica (2005) illustrates his work with case studies which potentially confuse everyday users with vanguard consumers.

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  • Green projects – particularly sustainable energy sources and clean technology - include multiple technologies, at different stages of maturity. The appropriate type of financing will be chosen according to the stage of development of the technologies. For example venture capital financing is normally suited for un-proven and un-tested technologies, while project financing is used for mature technologies such as wind and solar.

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  • Throughout the entire project many assumptions and methodological decisions had to be made along the various calculation steps in the domains of air pollution, epidemiology and economics. On each level, the method of dealing with uncertainty had to be defined. The research group decided that the main calculation ought to apply an “at least” approach, thus consistently selecting methodological assumptions in a way to get a result which may be expected to be “at least” attributable to air pollution.

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