Interventional cardiovascular medicine has evolved from an
extremely crude method of opening femoral arteries initiated
by Dotter, to a fi eld that has now been recognized as having
a suffi cient fund of knowledge to require boards sanctioned
by the American Board of Internal Medicine. From Andreas
Gruentzig’s development of the noncompliant balloon method,
we have seen an explosion of bioengineering technology.
The essential role of epidemiology is to improve the health of populations. Advances
in epidemiology research are expected to play a central role in medicine and public
health in the 21st century by providing information for disease prediction and
This book represents an overview on the diverse threads of epidemiological research
in that captures the new and exciting themes that have been emerging over recent
Our goal in creating the Methods & New Frontiers in Neuroscience Series is to
present the insights of experts on emerging experimental techniques and theoretical
concepts that are, or will be at the vanguard of Neuroscience. Books in the series
will cover topics ranging from methods to investigate apoptosis, to modern techniques
for neural ensemble recordings in behaving animals.
However, those runners who have the patience to develop speed for shorter
distances will realise even greater benefits when they decide to take the step up
the marathon. Building speed before endurance is always the best method of
enhancing long-term performance. This article will give you a taste of speed
training as it includes an eight-week training program designed to develop your
running so you can complete a 10k race in your desired time.
The program assumes a basic level of fitness, allowing you to complete the first
week relatively comfortably.
Many changes have been made in this book from the last edition. I hope it
will be helpful in providing a good review of public health and preventive
medicine. I also hope you will appreciate how applicable this field is in
everyday clinical practice (even biostatistics principles!) and what an
important impact prevention can have on the health of a population. Many
thanks to the medical students, Lucy Chie, Megan Schwarzman, and
Natalie Holt, for their thoughtful comments.
The development and rapid implementation of molecular genotyping methods have revolutionized
the possibility for differentiation and classification of microorganisms at the
subspecies level. Investigation of the species diversity is required to determine molecular
relatedness of isolates for epidemiological studies. Methods for molecular epidemiology
of microorganisms must be highly reproducible and provide effective discrimination of
epidemiologically unrelated strains.
Statistical Methods in Medical Research is a peer reviewed scholarly journal and is the leading vehicle for articles in all the main areas of medical statistics and an essential reference for all medical statisticians. This unique journal is devoted solely to statistics and medicine and aims to keep professionals abreast of the many powerful statistical techniques now available to the medical profession.
In order to address these issues, we have attempted to detail many of the key
relevant advances in signal processing. Chapter 1 describes the physiological background
and the specific autonomic mechanisms which regulate the beat-to-beat
changes of timing and morphology in the ECG, together with the cause and effect
of breakdowns in this mechanism. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the primary
issues that should be taken into account when designing an ECG collection system.
It is an exciting time for the discipline of cognitive
neuroscience. In the past 10 years we have
witnessed an explosion in the development and
advancement of methods that allow us to precisely
examine the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive
processes. Functional magnetic resonance
imaging, for example, has provided markedly improved
spatial and temporal resolution of brain
structure and function, which has led to answers to
new questions, and the reexamination of old questions.
Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer diagnosed in Western populations.
Autopsy studies have shown that with increasing age, the majority of
men will develop microscopic foci of cancer (often termed “latent” prostate
cancer) and that this is true in populations that are at both high and low risk for
the invasive form of the disease (1). However, only a small percentage of men
will develop invasive prostate cancer. The prevalence of prostate cancer is,
thus, very common; but to most men, prostate cancer will be only incidental to
their health and death....
The aim of the Handbook of Diagnostic Endocrinology is to provide a comprehensive
overview of current approaches to the diagnosis of endocrine disorders.
Our ability to diagnose patients with diseases of the endocrine systems is
expanding exponentially with the development of new and more reliable assay
methods and the incorporation of both molecular and genetic approaches into
our understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases.
The closing years of the 19th century and the start of the 20th century
witnessed the emergence of microbiology and immunology as discrete scientific
disciplines, and in the work of Roux and Yersin, perhaps the first benefits
of their synergy—immunotherapy against bacterial infection. As we advance
into the new millennium, microbiology and immunology again offer a conceptual
leap forward as antibody phage display gains increasing acceptance as
the definitive technology for monoclonal production and unleashes new opportunities
in immunotherapy, drug discovery, and functional genomics....
In the past 15 years, molecular biologists and geneticists have uncovered
some of the most basic mechanisms by means of which normal stem cells
in a certain organ or tissue develop into cancerous tumors. This biological
knowledge serves as a basis for various models of carcinogenesis.
The usual approach of epidemiological studies is to measure the association between at
least one specific pollutant (e.g. PM, NOx, CO or O3) and health outcomes. These
specific components are usually highly correlated with other pollutants and are
considered indicative of the complex pollutant mixture. It is unclear how much the
associations reported in epidemiological studies represent the independent effects of
The authors of this book are American and European neurologists. This book is
termed a “neuromuscular atlas” and is designed to help in the diagnosis of
neuromuscular diseases at all levels of the peripheral nervous system. This book
is written for students, residents, physicians and neurologists who do not
specialize in neuromuscular diseases.
The first chapter describes the numerous tools used in the diagnosis of
neuromuscular disease. These include history taking, the physical examination,
laboratory values, electrophysiology, biopsy and genetics.
Several filers reported suspected Ponzi schemes where subjects gathered client
funds for investment in commercial real estate or real estate securities without
actually purchasing the underlying assets. A hedge fund claimed to invest millions
in CMBS and credit derivatives, but the filer found no evidence of CMBS ownership.
The hedge fund primarily bought long-term certificates of deposit earning minimal
interest, which were inconsistent with the fund’s investment strategy. In addition,
the filer noted many small client deposits, consistent with a Ponzi scheme.
All of us like to think that our actions and reactions are a result of logical thought processes, but the fact is
that suggestion influences our thinking a great deal more than logic. Consciously or unconsciously, our
feelings about almost everything are largely molded by ready-made opinions and attitudes fostered by our
mass methods of communication. We cannot buy a bar of soap or a filtered cigarette without paying tribute to
the impact of suggestion. Right or wrong, most of us place more confidence in what "they" say than we do in
our own powers of reason.
This emphasis on the spectacular and exotic, consistent with an oppositional or
marginal view of the consumer, is often also emphasised in academic writing on
counterfeiting. Consumers of counterfeits are often represented through anecdotal
narratives which serve as a proxy for deeper understanding of consumer motivations.
For example, Lasica (2005) illustrates his work with case studies which potentially
confuse everyday users with vanguard consumers.
Green projects – particularly sustainable energy sources and clean technology - include multiple
technologies, at different stages of maturity. The appropriate type of financing will be chosen according to
the stage of development of the technologies. For example venture capital financing is normally suited for
un-proven and un-tested technologies, while project financing is used for mature technologies such as wind
Throughout the entire project many assumptions and methodological decisions had to be made along
the various calculation steps in the domains of air pollution, epidemiology and economics. On each
level, the method of dealing with uncertainty had to be defined. The research group decided that the
main calculation ought to apply an “at least” approach, thus consistently selecting methodological
assumptions in a way to get a result which may be expected to be “at least” attributable to air