Microbial activity

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  • Table 114-1 Examples of Microbial Ligand-Receptor Interactions Microorganism Type of Microbial Ligand Host Receptor Viral Pathogens Influenza virus Hemagglutinin Sialic acid Measles virus Vaccine strain Hemagglutinin CD46/moesin Wild-type strains Hemagglutinin Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) Human herpesvirus type 6 ? CD46 Herpes simplex virus Glycoprotein C Heparan sulfate HIV Surface glycoprotein CD4 and chemokine receptors CXCR4) (CCR5 and Epstein-Barr virus Envelope protein CD21 (=CR2) Adenovirus Fiber protein Coxsackie-adenovirus recepto...

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  • GPI-anchored receptors do not have intracellular signaling domains. Instead, the mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) transduce signals for cellular activation due to LPS binding. It has recently been shown that binding of microbial factors to TLRs to activate signal transduction occurs not on the cell surface, but rather in the phagosome of cells that have internalized the microbe. This interaction is probably due to the release of the microbial surface factor from the cell in the environment of the phagosome, where the liberated factor can bind to its cognate TLRs.

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  • An understanding of microbial biomass and microbial activity as part of belowground processes as affected by elevated CO2 is crucial in order to predict...

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  • Cold seeps occur in geologically active and passive continental margins, where pore waters enriched in methane are forced upward through the sediments by pressure gradients. The advective supply of methane leads to dense microbial communities with high metabolic rates. Anaerobic methane oxidation presumably coupled to sulphate reduction facilitates formation of carbonates and, in many places, generates extremely high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide in pore waters.

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  • Gaegurin 4 (GGN4), a 37-residue antimicrobial peptide, consists of two amphipathic ahelices (residues 2–10and 16–32) connected by a flexible loop region (residues 11– 15). As part of an effort to develop new peptide antibiotics with low molecular mass, the activities of C-terminally truncated GGN4 analogues were tested. D 24)37 GGN4, a peptide analogue with 14 residues truncated from the C-terminus of GGN4, showed a complete loss of anti-microbial activity.

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  • The book Cell Interaction focuses on various processes that occur within and outside the cells. Cell interactions are important for functioning of many organ systems: cell adhesion, tissue development, cellular communication, inflammation, tumor metastasis, and microbial infection. Key features include developmental cell interactions, immune and neural cell interactions, cell interactions in normal and disease conditions and advanced level methods to evaluate cell interactions.

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  • Chemical precipitation and complexation are primarily important for the inorganic species. The formation of coordination complexes is typical behaviour of transition metals, which provide the cation or central atom. Ligands include common inorganic anions such as Cl - , F- , Br - , SO4 2- , PO4 3- and CO3 2- as well as organic molecules such as amino acids. Such complexation may facilitate the transport of metals. Biodegradation is a reaction process mediated by microbial activity (a biotic reaction).

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  • The last decade has contributed significantly to the development of research on the biogeochemistry of tropical mangrove ecosystems. Also obvious during the last decade is the continued and dramatic destruction of natural tropical mangrove resources in Southeast Asia (Fig. 1.1). The naturally high productivity of tropi- cal mangroves has traditionally been exploited for a wide variety of purposes, both as sources of forestry or fisheries products and they have also been used for human settlement (Hatcher et al., 1989; Platong, 1998).

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  • When revealing many such cause-effect relations and hidden phenomena, hand-held instrumentation gives additional references for existing basic measurements such as pH, conductivity, and redox potential. This work also took in use measurements which have not been traditionally used in papermaking such as measurement of halogens, dissolved calcium, and dissolved oxygen contents. ATP content measurement using a portable luminometer was found to be useful and easy-to-use method for evaluating microbial activity and optimizing biocide performance at paper mills.

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  • There were no patients in whom water intoxication developed or who needed transfusions perioperatively. Bladder neck contracture, which developed three to four months postoperatively, was the most frequent complication (49 cases, 32.7%). Other complications included pubic osteitis (2 cases), bladder tamponade (2 case), acute epididymitis (3 case), pulmonary embolism (1 case), and rectourethral fistula (1 case). Erectile function was preserved after the first operation in 26 (60.5%) of the evaluated 38 sexually active patients.

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  • The Public Health Agency of Canada estimates that during the pandemic 15 to 35 percent of the population will become sick and be unable to go to school or work. This does not include those that may contract the virus and feel ill, but continue their usual activities. The most significant impact on the private sector is likely to be disruption due to employee absenteeism. Employees will be off work due to sickness or having to stay home and care for sick family members. Schools may also be closed forcing parents to stay home and care for children. Personal...

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  • “One size fits all” is not appropriate for poverty reduction, because con- ditions are different and because governments’ abilities are different. FOSIS in Chile, a fund that was not supported in any major way by the IDB, is a central part of the government’s machinery for poverty allevia- tion and is extremely flexible. The fund concentrates on productive projects, supports substantial microcredit activities, and imparts sub- stantial training to communities.

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  • Our work is almost exclusively with banks and financial services companies in local markets, in western states markets, nationally and even abroad. We see what works, where it works, and why it works in one market, and maybe not in others. When we find anything new that has the potential to work better than our baseline programs, we incorporate the technique into our toolkit of tactics and menu of options for participants. We do not represent any particular sales system and are not bound to represent any particular sales management company. Rather than being tied...

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  • The objective of this thesis was to study the interactions of microbial activity, biocide usage and creation, and chemical changes in the papermaking process. The main focus was on oxidative biocide systems. In addition, new measurement and biocide production methods were applied to papermaking, and evaluated for the monitoring and control of the microbiological state and biocide usage. The measurement methods were based on portable handheld online equipments whereas the biocide production was based on electrochemical generation of biocides.

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  • The USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program seeks to assess the condition and trend of the forests of the U.S. FIA recently assumed responsibility for all former Forest Health Monitoring program (FHM) plot work on a national level, and is currently active in 32 states. Lichen community monitoring was included in FIA in order to address key assessment issues such as the impact of air pollution on forest resources, spatial and temporal trends in biodiversity, and the sustainability of timber harvesting.

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  • Affirming further that educational systems and other social services should be involved in the protection and promotion of breastfeeding, and in the appropriate use of complementary foods; Aware that families, communities, women's organizations and other nongovernmental organizations have a special role to play in the protection and promotion of breast-feeding and in ensuring the support needed by pregnant women and mothers of infants and young children, whether breast-feeding or not; Affirming the need for governments, organizations of the United Nations system, nongovernmental org...

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  • The development of performance indicators to measure progress, both quantitative and qualitative, should be undertaken with care. If the skills to develop performance indicators are not part of the skill set of the proposed project team, then the project manager may wish to include ‘indicator development’ skills in the ‘Resource’ section and in the ‘Risks’ section of the Implementation Plan. Performance indicators may be developed for both the policy as a whole, and for each phase or activity.

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  • But the patterns of Indian child socialisation are bound to change as processes of modernisation and lately globalisation, proceed apace. As Murphy (1953) points out, Indian children are friendly, responsible, artistic, cheerful and spontaneous –a result she believes of the acceptance of children in the everyday pattern of family living, the easy participation of people of any age in the activities of the rest.

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  • Originally scheduled for just five years, steps were then taken to extend the milk quota system until 1992. The Reform of the CAP in 1992 (MacSharry Reform) led to a further prolongation of the quota system until 2000, at which point, as part of Agenda 2000, the system was further extended until 2008. Finally with the Luxembourg Agreement on the MTR in 2003, MS approved another extension of the quota regime until 2015.

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  • Nowadays, with over a thousand bacterial genomes sequenced, even greater opportunities have opened for experimental or computational global analysis of metabolism, physiology, and evolution. In particular, the access to comprehensive sets of molecular components (genes, proteins, regulatory signals) is at the basis of the development of novel integrative approaches, aiming at understanding the function of specific sets of these components (operons, regulons, metabolic pathways, protein complexes, etc.) in the context of the whole organism.

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