Microbial diseases

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  • This comprehensive volume covers the major viral, bacterial and fungal diseases in fi n- and shellfi shes. It completes the three-volume series on fi sh diseases and disorders; Volume I (published in 1995) is on parasitic diseases in fi n- and shellfi shes while Volume II (published in 1998) deals with non-infectious disorders in fi nfi sh. Reviews in the three volumes are written by international authorities that are actively working in the area or have contributed greatly to our understanding of specifi c piscine diseases or disorders.

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  • As for the fi rst edition of this volume, the chapters comprise comprehensive discussions of the some of the major non-infectious disorders of fi nfi sh. It is the second volume of a threevolume series on fi sh diseases and disorders; Volume 1 deals with parasitic diseases and Volume 3 with microbial diseases. Reviews in the three volumes are written by leading international authorities who are actively working in the area or who have contributed greatly to our understanding of specifi c diseases or disorders....

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  • In a Global scenario, economically progressive nations have developed medical sciences. But still it lacks precise information during the enhancement of potent drugs to combat ailment, which is the legacy of the organisms that generate diseases. Rising countries had long been perceived the threat, which at times, down the lane has been the major factor for magnanimous economic disaster and human poverty. Lot of resources was put into force by the world community to abscond the microbial fauna and genetically inherited diseases to contain them within the safe limits.

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  • Encounters with Epithelial Cells Over the past decade, many bacterial pathogens have been shown to enter epithelial cells (Fig. 114-2); the bacteria often use specialized surface structures that bind to receptors, with consequent internalization. However, the exact role and the importance of this process in infection and disease are not well defined for most of these pathogens. Bacterial entry into host epithelial cells is seen as a means for dissemination to adjacent or deeper tissues or as a route to sanctuary to avoid ingestion and killing by professional phagocytes.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 114. Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis: Introduction Over the past three decades, molecular studies of the pathogenesis of microorganisms have yielded an explosion of information about the various microbial and host molecules that contribute to the processes of infection and disease.

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  • Encounters with Phagocytes Phagocytosis and Inflammation Phagocytosis of microbes is a major innate host defense that limits the growth and spread of pathogens. Phagocytes appear rapidly at sites of infection in conjunction with the initiation of inflammation. Ingestion of microbes by both tissue-fixed macrophages and migrating phagocytes probably accounts for the limited ability of most microbial agents to cause disease.

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  • Invasion Many diseases are caused primarily by pathogens growing in tissue sites that are normally sterile. Pneumococcal pneumonia is mostly attributable to the growth of S. pneumoniae in the lung and the attendant host inflammatory response, although specific factors that enhance this process (e.g., pneumolysin) may be responsible for some of the pathogenic potential of the pneumococcus. Disease that follows bacteremia and invasion of the meninges by meningitisproducing bacteria such as N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, E.

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  • Transmission to New Hosts As part of the pathogenic process, most microbes are shed from the host, often in a form infectious for susceptible individuals. However, the rate of transmissibility may not necessarily be high, even if the disease is severe in the infected individual, as transmissibility and virulence are not linked traits.

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  • Propaganda; Australasian Medical Congresses. Committee appointed; Auckland Congress, 1914, Report presented, Nature of Notification recommended; Melbourne Conference, 1922, Review of Legislation, Comments and Recommendations; England, Committee recently appointed to report on Venereal Diseases 5 Section 5.

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  • Pest and disease management continues to be an important challenge to the agricultural community. Confronted with the shifts in pest pressure and the rise in new pest and crop problems, coupled with public concern over pesticide use and more stringent environmental regulations, today’s crop producer must exhibit good stewardship and stay current with new technologies in order to produce high-quality crops in a profitable manner.

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  • A well-developed knowledge of clinical microbiology is critical for the practicing physician in any medical field. Bacteria, viruses, and protozoans have no respect for the distinction between ophthalmology, pediatrics, trauma surgery, or geriatric medicine. As a physician you will be faced daily with the concepts of microbial disease and antimicrobial therapy.

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  • Bacteria are non-chlorophyllated unicellular organisms that reproduce by fission and do not present nuclear envelope. Gram´s stain is a staining technique used to classify bacteria based on the different characteristic of their cell walls. Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria are determined by the amount and location of peptidoglycan in the cell wall, exhibiting different chemical compositions and structures, cell-wall permeabilities, physiologies, metabolisms, and pathogenicities.

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  • Resistance towards the responsible pathogens are also seen in developed countries. The situation has worsened often due to limited resource available to investigate and provide reliable susceptibility data on which rational treatments can be based as well as means to optimize the use of antimicrobial agents. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant isolates in tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections and diarrhea, often referred to as diseases of poverty, has had its greatest toll in developing countries.

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  • Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system that impairs one of the body's most basic functions: the conception of children. In the United States, infertility affects about 7.3 million women and their partners, or about 12% of the reproductive-aged population. For many of these couples, the answer lies in conventional medical therapy, such as drug treatment or surgery to repair reproductive organs. Since 1978, ART has provided another solution for many would-be parents.

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  • Malaria, caused by four species of Plasmodium, of which Plasmodium falciparum is the most dangerous, remains the world's most devastating human parasitic infection. This chapter deals with the properties and uses of important drugs used to treat and prevent this infection. Highly effective agents that act against asexual erythrocytic stages of malarial parasites responsible for clinical attacks include chloroquine, quinine, quinidine, mefloquine, atovaquone, and the artemisinin compounds.

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  • In addition to emerging chemical contaminants, there is also the threat of emerging pathogens – those that are appearing in human populations for the first time, or have occurred before but are increasing in incidence or are expanding into areas where they have not been reported (WHO 2003a). Not only do water-related diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, but several studies have confirmed that the variety of disease is expanding and the incidence of many water-related microbial diseases is increasing (WHO 2003a).

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  • Sarcoidosis is one of the best-known systemic granulomatous diseases. Despite intensive investigation, however, the etiology of sarcoidosis has remained unresolved for more than 100 years [1]. Sarcoidosis seems to result from the exposure of a genetically susceptible subject to an environmental agent, and microbial etiologies of sarcoidosis have long been considered based on the clinical similarities to infectious granulomatous diseases [2].

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  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease primarily of the joints that, if lelt untreated, results in functional disebility concordant with radiographic progression. It is well recognized that strking pathogenic similarities exist between periodontitis and RA. Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNF a) and interleukin (IL) as well as microbial enzymes and host matrix metalloproteianses (MMP-8 and -9) appear to play important roles in both conditions....

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  • We identified three studies that tested interventions to improve patient adherence to established therapies for chronic disease management, but none of these three showed any effect on patient adherence. However, given the small sample sizes and the studies’ diverse outcome measures, we concluded that there was only low-grade evidence that interventions did not improve patient adherence.

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  • Radiation therapy is rarely used in the initial treatment of ovarian cancer, but it may be used to relieve pain and other problems caused by the disease. The treatment is given at a hospital or clinic. Each treatment takes only a few minutes. Side effects depend mainly on the amount of radiation given and the part of your body that is treated. Radiation therapy to your abdomen and pelvis may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or bloody stools. Also, your skin in the treated area may become red, dry, and tender.

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