Microbial molecular

Xem 1-20 trên 35 kết quả Microbial molecular
  • The development and rapid implementation of molecular genotyping methods have revolutionized the possibility for differentiation and classification of microorganisms at the subspecies level. Investigation of the species diversity is required to determine molecular relatedness of isolates for epidemiological studies. Methods for molecular epidemiology of microorganisms must be highly reproducible and provide effective discrimination of epidemiologically unrelated strains.

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  • In routine histopathology, most tissues are fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin for long-term preservation. DNA can be extracted from these tissues for subsequent molecular analysis by amplification methods. We describe herein a protocol for DNA preparation from paraffin-embedded tissues based on published procedures (1–3). In brief, tissue sections are placed into microfuge tubes, then deparaffinized with xylene. The xylene is removed with ethanol washes, and the tissue is treated with proteinase K to make DNA available for amplification....

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 114. Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis: Introduction Over the past three decades, molecular studies of the pathogenesis of microorganisms have yielded an explosion of information about the various microbial and host molecules that contribute to the processes of infection and disease.

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  • Table 114-1 Examples of Microbial Ligand-Receptor Interactions Microorganism Type of Microbial Ligand Host Receptor Viral Pathogens Influenza virus Hemagglutinin Sialic acid Measles virus Vaccine strain Hemagglutinin CD46/moesin Wild-type strains Hemagglutinin Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) Human herpesvirus type 6 ? CD46 Herpes simplex virus Glycoprotein C Heparan sulfate HIV Surface glycoprotein CD4 and chemokine receptors CXCR4) (CCR5 and Epstein-Barr virus Envelope protein CD21 (=CR2) Adenovirus Fiber protein Coxsackie-adenovirus recepto...

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  • GPI-anchored receptors do not have intracellular signaling domains. Instead, the mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) transduce signals for cellular activation due to LPS binding. It has recently been shown that binding of microbial factors to TLRs to activate signal transduction occurs not on the cell surface, but rather in the phagosome of cells that have internalized the microbe. This interaction is probably due to the release of the microbial surface factor from the cell in the environment of the phagosome, where the liberated factor can bind to its cognate TLRs.

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  • Encounters with Phagocytes Phagocytosis and Inflammation Phagocytosis of microbes is a major innate host defense that limits the growth and spread of pathogens. Phagocytes appear rapidly at sites of infection in conjunction with the initiation of inflammation. Ingestion of microbes by both tissue-fixed macrophages and migrating phagocytes probably accounts for the limited ability of most microbial agents to cause disease.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'molecular photochemistry – various aspects', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Nowadays, with over a thousand bacterial genomes sequenced, even greater opportunities have opened for experimental or computational global analysis of metabolism, physiology, and evolution. In particular, the access to comprehensive sets of molecular components (genes, proteins, regulatory signals) is at the basis of the development of novel integrative approaches, aiming at understanding the function of specific sets of these components (operons, regulons, metabolic pathways, protein complexes, etc.) in the context of the whole organism.

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  • Resistance towards the responsible pathogens are also seen in developed countries. The situation has worsened often due to limited resource available to investigate and provide reliable susceptibility data on which rational treatments can be based as well as means to optimize the use of antimicrobial agents. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant isolates in tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections and diarrhea, often referred to as diseases of poverty, has had its greatest toll in developing countries.

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  • Numerous virus–target cell interactions have been described, and it is now clear that different viruses can use similar host-cell receptors for entry. The list of certain and likely host receptors for viral pathogens is long. Among the host membrane components that can serve as receptors for viruses are sialic acids, gangliosides, glycosaminoglycans, integrins and other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, histocompatibility antigens, and regulators and receptors for complement components.

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  • Encounters with Epithelial Cells Over the past decade, many bacterial pathogens have been shown to enter epithelial cells (Fig. 114-2); the bacteria often use specialized surface structures that bind to receptors, with consequent internalization. However, the exact role and the importance of this process in infection and disease are not well defined for most of these pathogens. Bacterial entry into host epithelial cells is seen as a means for dissemination to adjacent or deeper tissues or as a route to sanctuary to avoid ingestion and killing by professional phagocytes.

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  • The direct effect of probiotics in the lumen include the competition with pathogens for nutrients, production of antimicrobial substances and in particular organic acids competitive inhibition on the receptor sites, change in the composition of mucin hydrolysis of toxins, receptor hydrolysis, and nitric oxide (NO). The indirect effect of probiotics largely depends on the site of interaction between the probiotic and the effectors of the immune response. Thantasha et al.

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  • Knowledge of seawater microbial diversity is important for understanding community structure and patterns of distribution. In the ocean water column, organisms

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  • Viral Adhesins (See also Chap. 161) All viral pathogens must bind to host cells, enter them, and replicate within them. Viral coat proteins serve as the ligands for cellular entry, and more than one ligand-receptor interaction may be needed; for example, HIV uses its envelope glycoprotein (gp) 120 to enter host cells by binding to both CD4 and one of two receptors for chemokines (designated CCR5 and CXCR4). Similarly, the measles virus H glycoprotein binds to both CD46 and the membrane-organizing protein moesin on host cells.

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  • Invasion Many diseases are caused primarily by pathogens growing in tissue sites that are normally sterile. Pneumococcal pneumonia is mostly attributable to the growth of S. pneumoniae in the lung and the attendant host inflammatory response, although specific factors that enhance this process (e.g., pneumolysin) may be responsible for some of the pathogenic potential of the pneumococcus. Disease that follows bacteremia and invasion of the meninges by meningitisproducing bacteria such as N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, E.

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  • Transmission to New Hosts As part of the pathogenic process, most microbes are shed from the host, often in a form infectious for susceptible individuals. However, the rate of transmissibility may not necessarily be high, even if the disease is severe in the infected individual, as transmissibility and virulence are not linked traits.

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  • There have been various comprehensive and stand-alone text books on the introduction to Molecular Photochemistry available in market. A few fantastic books to mention are: ‘Modern Molecular Photochemistry of Organic Molecules’ by N. J. Turro et. al. and ‘Fundamentals of Photochemistry’ by K. K. Rohatgi- Mukherjee. These books along with others give crystal clear idea on the common topics both in pictorial and intuitive terms.

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  • Boran, a popular cattle breed, is predominantly utilized and widely distributed across various countries of Africa (DAGRIS 2006). The Ethiopian Boran belongs to the group of Zebu cattle (Bos indicus), with their characteristic hump and pendulous dewlap. Available archaeological records indicate that zebu cattle are the most recent types of cattle to be introduced into Africa. Recent molecular genetic as well as archaeological evidences (Marshall 2000; Hanotte et al.

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  • Flagella are long appendages attached at either one or both ends of the bacterial cell (polar flagella) or distributed over the entire cell surface (peritrichous flagella). Flagella, like pili, are composed of a polymerized or aggregated basic protein. In flagella, the protein subunits form a tight helical structure and vary serologically with the species. Spirochetes such as T. pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi have axial filaments similar to flagella running down the long axis of the center of the cell, and they "swim" by rotation around these filaments.

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  • Advection is the transport of dissolved solute mass present in groundwater due to the bulk flow (movement) of that groundwater. Advection alone (with no dispersion or reactive processes occurring) would cause a non-reactive solute to advect (move) at the mean groundwater pore velocity. All solutes undergo advection, however, reactive solutes are subject to influences by other processes detailed below. Molecular diffusion is the movement of solute ions in the direction of the con- centration gradient from high towards low concentrations. It effects all solutes.

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