Microbiologists

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  • For many years microbiologists believed that the tissues of healthy animals normally contained bacteria (Reith, 1926; Ingram, 1972). These ‘intrinsic’ bacteria were the cause of phenomena such as ‘bone taint’. The cause of bone taint is still questioned and will be discussed later.The prevailing view of the majority of textbooks (Banwart, 1989;Varnam and Sutherland, 1995), based in part on the work of Gill (Gill, 1979, 1980) is that the meat of a healthy animal is essentially sterile.

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  • The discovery of Shigella as the etiologic agent of dysentery—a clinical syndrome of fever, intestinal cramps, and frequent passage of small, bloody, mucopurulent stools—is attributed to the Japanese microbiologist Kiyoshi Shiga, who isolated the Shiga bacillus (now known as Shigella dysenteriae type 1) from patients' stools in 1897 during a large and devastating dysentery epidemic. Shigella cannot be distinguished from Escherichia coli by DNA hybridization and remains a separate species only on historical and clinical grounds.

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  • This book is broadly divided into five sections and 17 chapters, highlighting recent advances in aflatoxin research from epidemiology to molecular genomics and control measures, biocontrol approaches, modern analytical techniques, economic concerns and underlying mechanisms of contamination processes.

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  • Bioremediation, the use of microorganisms, by virtue of their bioconcentrating and metabolic properties, to degrade, sequester, or remove environmental contaminants, has about a 45-year history. Such uses of microorganisms for this purpose now involve freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments. Bioremediation is a multidisciplinary area of knowledge and expertise that involves basic and applied science. Microbiologists, chemists, toxicologists, environmental engineers, molecular biologists, and ecologists have made major contributions to this subject....

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  • The study of the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections encompasses many different disciplines, including clinical microbiology, diagnostics, animal ecology, and food safety, as well as the cellular microbiology of both bacterial pathogenesis and the mechanisms of toxin action. E. coli: Shiga Toxin Methods and Protocols aims to bring together a number of experts from each of these varied fields in order to outline some of the basic protocols for the diagnosis and study of STEC pathogenesis.

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  • We do the research that identifies causes of disease and disability. We advocate for solutions. We consult with policymakers and provide them with the evidence they need to make change. We roll our sleeves up and get to work in communities by influencing policies, identifying trends, implementing solutions, and increasing healthy behavior. Our work happens on a molecular level, and on a population-wide level. Microbiologists work to find a vaccine for malaria, while behavioral scientists research ways to discourage populations from smoking.

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