Introduction Micronutrient deficiencies affect the majority of the population in Asia. Though somewhat lower than in other countries in the region, micronutrient deficiencies remain p r eva len t in Vie tna m. The prevalence of xerophthalmia, or clinical vitamin A deficiency (VAD), is now lower than the cut-off point established by the World Health Organization (WHO) to indicate a significant public health problem. However, the prevalence of sub-clinical VAD as measured by low serum retinol exceeds 10% for children under five and pregnant women.
Natural resources conservation is one of the dilemmas currently facing mankind in both developed and the developing world. The topic is of particular importance for the latter, where the majority depend on terrestrial ecosystems for livelihood; more than one billion people live in abject poverty earning less than a dollar per day; more than 3.7 billion suffer from micronutrient deficiency and more than 800 million suffer from chronic hunger.
Specific micronutrient deficiencies may affect maternal and foetal health. Iodine deficiency
during pregnancy may cause foetal brain damage and mental retardation in infants. Vitamin
A deficiency increases the risk in pregnant women of infection and anaemia, may cause
blindness during pregnancy and early lactation, and has been associated to an elevated risk of
HIV mother-to-child transmission. Folate deficiency may cause severe foetal neural tube
defects like anencephaly and spina bifida.
In 2000, the WHO Regional Committee for Europe requested the Regional Director,
in resolution EUR/RC50/R8, to take action to help fulfil WHO’s role in
implementing its first food and nutrition action plan for the WHO European
Region. This included presenting Member States with a review of the scientific
evidence needed to develop integrated and comprehensive national food and nutrition
At the start of the 21st century, the learning potential of significant numbers of children
and young people in every country in the world is compromised. Hunger, malnutrition,
micronutrient deficiencies, parasite infections, drug and alcohol abuse, violence and injury,
early and unintended pregnancy, and infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted
infections threaten the health and lives of children and youth (UNESCO, 2001). Yet these
conditions and behaviours can be improved.
Anaemia is one of the most common nutritional problems affecting women in developing
countries, where iron deficiency usually combines with other micronutrient deficiencies such
as folate and vitamin B. In addition, the diet of the poorest populations is often monotonous
and mainly based on staple foods, which are low in iron and contain absorption inhibitors.
Other important factors involved in the occurrence of anaemia include malaria and
hookworm infestations, chronic infections such as HIV, and congenital conditions like sickle
cell disease, among others.
This little book will aid you in answering that troublesome question. The recipes are carefully selected and we
hope you will find them helpful.
More important to you than the question of food is that of health. Therefore, in this book we show you many
letters from women who have received great benefit by taking Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Compound. You
have heard of this splendid medicine, for it has been used by women for nearly fifty years. It is a Woman's
Medicine for Women's Ailments.
Post-natal infections not only occur more frequently in children stunted in utero but also
promote stunting post-natally in young children, particularly in low- and middle-income settings
where a high prevalence of infectious illnesses combines with poor sanitation to facilitate fecal-
oral transmission of diarrheal and parasitic illnesses (Grantham-McGregor et al 1999b).
Chlorine is classified as a micronutrient, but it is often taken up by plants at levels comparable to a
macronutrient. Supplies of chlorine in nature are often plentiful, and obvious symptoms of
deficiency are seldom observed.
These replacement and/or supplementary supplies
can be provided through organic manures and/or
This publication concerns the provision of raw mate-
rials for two important mineral fertilizers, phosphate
Three major nutrients are required in large quantities
for plant growth, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassi-
um. Three secondary nutrients are required in smaller
quantities on some soils; sulfur, calcium and magne-
sium. Seven micronutrients may be required in small
amounts where deficient.
As a research scientist in the area of human nutrition, I have observed a sea change in
emphasis within my field over the past 10–15 years. There have always been dynamics
within the subject: During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists grappled with
discovering the essential micronutrients and with characterizing the biological effects of
their deficiency. This interest in “too little” was supplanted in the mid-1980s by a preoccupation
with too much—too much fat, too much sugar, and too much obesity.
The results was read according to the grading
system of the International Union Against TB and Lung
Diseases as - , +, ++, +++7. Thereafter, the sputum was
decontaminated using 4 per cent NaOH. The resulting
solution was mixed using vortex mixer. About one ml
from the mixture was inoculated onto prepared modified
Ogawa egg medium as previously demonstrated8 and
incubated at 37oC for six weeks. M. tuberculosis strain
H37Rv and sterile Ogawa medium were used as positive
and negative controls respectively.