Basic Concepts and Theories of Filters
This chapter describes basic concepts and theories that form the foundation for design of general RF/microwave filters, including microstrip filters. The topics will cover filter transfer functions, lowpass prototype filters and elements, frequency and element transformations, immittance inverters, Richards’ transformation, and Kuroda identities for distributed elements. Dissipation and unloaded quality factor of filter elements will also be discussed.
Advanced Materials and Technologies
High-temperature superconductors (HTS), ferroelectrics, micromachining or microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), hybrid or monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), active filters, photonic bandgap (PBG) materials/structures, and low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) are among recent advanced materials and technologies that have stimulated the rapid development of new microstrip and other filters.
Lowpass and Bandpass Filters
Conventional microstrip lowpass and bandpass filters such as stepped-impedance filters, open-stub filters, semilumped element filters, end- and parallel-coupled half-wavelength resonator filters, hairpin-line filters, interdigital and combline filters, pseudocombline filters, and stub-line filters are widely used in many RF/microwave applications. It is the purpose of this chapter to present the designs of these filters with instructive design examples.
Case Study for Mobile Communications Applications
Microstrip filters play various roles in wireless or mobile communication systems. This chapter is particularly concerned with a case study of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters for the cellular base station applications. The study starts with a brief discussion of typical HTS subsystems and RF modules, including HTS microstrip filters for cellular base stations.
Compact Filters and Filter Miniaturization
Microstrip filters are themselves already small in size compared with other filters such as waveguide filters. Nevertheless, for some applications where the size reduction is of primary importance, smaller microstrip filters are desirable, even though reducing the size of a filter generally leads to increased dissipation losses in a given material and hence reduced performance.
In the last 40 years, the microstrip antenna has been developed for many communication systems such as radars, sensors, wireless, satellite, broadcasting, ultra-wideband, radio frequency identifications (RFIDs), reader devices etc. The progress in modern wireless communication systems has dramatically increased the demand for microstrip antennas. In this book some recent advances in microstrip antennas are presented.
Highpass and Bandstop Filters
In this chapter, we will discuss some typical microstrip highpass and bandstop filters. These include quasilumped element and optimum distributed highpass filters, narrow-band and wide-band bandstop filters, as well as filters for RF chokes. Design equations, tables, and examples are presented for easy reference.
Coupled Resonator Circuits
Coupled resonator circuits are of importance for design of RF/microwave filters, in particular the narrow-band bandpass filters that play a significant role in many applications. There is a general technique for designing coupled resonator filters in the sense that it can be applied to any type of resonator despite its physical structure. It has been applied to the design of waveguide filters [1–2], dielectric resonator filters , ceramic combline filters , microstrip filters [5–7], superconducting filters , and micromachined filters . ...
Transmission Lines and Components
In this chapter, basic concepts and design equations for microstrip lines, coupled microstrip lines, discontinuities, and components useful for design of filters are briefly described. Though comprehensive treatments of these topics can be found in the open literature, they are summarized here for easy reference.
This paper concentrates on studying, designing and manufacturing a dual – band and high – bandwidth antenna applied for advance mobile handsets. This antenna can work in GSM/UMTS bands by generating two resonant modes of 900 MHz and 1900 MHz frequencies. Antenna is printed on FR4 substrate with size of 58 mm x 80 mm, thickness of 1.6 mm and relative permittivity of 4.4. The propose antenna is experimentally studied. Keywords: Antenna, dual-band, monopole, microstrip antenna.
The term microwaves may be used to describe electromagnetic (EM) waves with frequencies ranging from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, which correspond to wavelengths (in free space) from 1 m to 1 mm. The EM waves with frequencies above 30 GHz and up to 300 GHz are also called millimeter waves because their wavelengths are in the millimeter range (1–10 mm). Above the millimeter wave spectrum is the infrared, which comprises electromagnetic waves with wavelengths between 1 m (10–6 m) and 1 mm. Beyond the infrared spectrum is the visible optical spectrum, the ultraviolet spectrum, and x-rays.
Filter networks are essential building elements in many areas of RF/microwave engineering. Such networks are used to select/reject or separate/combine signals at different frequencies in a host of RF/microwave systems and equipment. Although the physical realization of filters at RF/microwave frequencies may vary, the circuit network topology is common to all. At microwave frequencies, voltmeters and ammeters for the direct measurement of voltages and currents do not exist.
CAD for Low-Cost and High-Volume Production
There have been extraordinary recent advances in computer-aided design (CAD) of RF/microwave circuits, particularly in full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulations. They have been implemented both in commercial and specific in-house software and are being applied to microwave filter simulation, modeling, design, and validation . The developments in this area are certainly stimulated by increasing computer power. In the past decade, computer speed and memory have doubled about every 2 years ....
Advanced RF/Microwave Filters
There have been increasing demands for advanced RF/microwave filters other than conventional Chebyshev filters in order to meet stringent requirements from RF/microwave systems, particularly from wireless communications systems. In this chapter, we will discuss the designs of some advanced filters.
Transmission Line and and Waveguide presents general solutions for TEM, TE, and TM waves; parallel plate waveguide; rectangular waveguide; circular waveguide; coaxial line; surface waves on a grounded dielectric sheet; stripline; microstrip line; the transverse resonant technique; wave velocities and dispersio.