Middle ­income countries

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Galvanising mental health research in low- and middle-income countries: Role of scientific journals...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Trauma research in low- and middle-income countries is urgently needed to strengthen the chain of survival

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  • In high-income countries, cancer has received considerable public attention because it is one of the major causes of mortality, morbidity, and disease burden. In middle- and particularly in low-income countries, cancer has received less public attention because other diseases, especially infectious diseases, have historically been far more pressing. Although less prominent in relative terms, as this report documents, cancer is a major burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs) today.

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  • We included studies that evaluated the performance of the most recent generation of commercial, RD1 antigen-based IGRAs (QFT-GIT and T-SPOT) among adults (age $15 years) with suspected active pulmonary tuberculosis or confirmed tuberculosis in low- and middle-income countries [22]; the World Bank Country Classification was considered as a surrogate for national tuberculosis incidence. HIV infection was established either by documented serological testing or self-report.

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  • The Official Development Assistance (ODA) in the thesis includes the grant aid, concessional loans, the less concessional loans from the governments and international financial institutions.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Prevention of cardiovascular diseases from current evidence to clinical practice" presents the following contents: Chagas disease - A neglected disease; prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases - Policies, strategies and interventions; prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases focusing on low and middle ­income countries; posttraumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease,...

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  • Recent empirical research on the impact of privatization on financial and operating performance, labour, fiscal balances and distributional equity largely confirms the view that privatization can be beneficial for firms operating in a competitive market structure in middle-income countries.

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  • This publication is the product of a comprehensive consultation undertaken by WHO in 2001 involving leading experts in the field of cancer epidemiology, screening and treatment. It is part of WHO's commitment to provide evidence-based guidelines to decision makers, and a recognition of the priority that should be given to cervical cancer screening and treatment as an essential component of any comprehensive national cancer control program. The report focuses particularly on the situation in low and middle income countries - countries in......

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  • The global environment is changing rapidly, partly in response to economic globalization. These global changes are clearly evident at the local level, even in the quality of air that people breath. In some high income countries air quality has been improving, due to a combination of de-industrialization, improved technologies and environmental regulation. However, advances in the science of epidemiology suggest that even air that would until recently have been considered ‘clean’ may contain pollutants that are hazardous to people’s health.

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  • Starting in the 1980s, Nobel economist Milton Friedman played an important role, along with many other economists and public pol- icy experts, in the development of an index of economic freedom that would allow researchers to be able to measure the degree to which a country had a free market economy. Those efforts culminated in the Fraser Institute’s publication in 1996 of the first edition of Economic Freedom of the World. There have been 14 more editions published since then in what is now an annual series.

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  • The global burden of neuropsychiatric disorders is substantial. When measured by years lived with disability and years lost due to premature death in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), psychiatric and neurological conditions accounted for 13% of the global burden of disease in 2002 (WHO, 2004). Despite the huge burden of mental illness, few human and financial resources are directed towards mental health care. Mental health spending in many countries of the world is less than 1% of the health budget, and the number of mental health professionals is grossly inadequate (WHO, 2005a)....

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  • Chapter 39 - The economics of developing countries. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Describe how the World Bank distinguishes between industrial advanced countries (high-income nations) and developing countries (middle-income and low-income nations), list some of the obstacles to economic development, explain the vicious circle of poverty that afflicts low-income nations, discuss the role of government in promoting economic development within low-income nations, describe how industrial nations attempt to aid low-income countries.

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  • After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Describe how the World Bank distinguishes between industrial advanced countries (high-income nations) and developing countries (middle-income and low-income nations), list some of the obstacles to economic development, explain the vicious circle of poverty that afflicts low-income nations, discuss the role of government in promoting economic development within low-income nations.

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  • Vietnam has a vision to build a democratic, clean, strong and modernised civil  service.  It promulgated the Ordinance of Cadre and Civil Servants in 1998,  revised it in 2000 and 2003 and recently promulgated the new Law on Cadre and  Civil Servants that will come into effect on January 2010.  The PAR Master  Programme (2001­2010) also made efforts to improve the quality of the civil  service and civil servant management, with mixed success.  ...

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  • In low- and middle-income countries, complications from pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death among girls aged 15 to 19. And in 2008, there were an estimated three million unsafe abortions among girls in this age group. The adverse effects of adolescent childbearing also extend to the health of their infants. Perinatal deaths are 50% higher among babies born to mothers under 20 years of age than among those born to mothers aged 20 to 29. The newborns of adolescent mothers are also more likely to have low birth weight, with the risk of long-term effects....

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  • Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fast foods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan).

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  • Diabetes The International Diabetes Federation reports that the number of diabetics in the world is expected to increase from 194 million in 2003 to 330 million by 2030, when 3 of every 4 sufferers will live in developing countries. Because diabetics are far more frequently under the age of 65 in developing nations, the complications of micro- and macrovascular disease take a far greater toll. In 2005, an estimated 1.1 million people died of diabetes-related illnesses, and 80% of these deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries.

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  • Standard economic theory argues that international private capital flows will make a major contribution to development to the extent that they will flow from capital-abundant industrialized countries to capital-scarce developing countries, and help to smooth spending throughout the business cycle in capital-recipient countries. In recent years, reality has contradicted both aspects of this standard theory. For the last seven years, developing countries have transferred large amount of resources to developed countries.

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  • The third section of the book reviews some of the major challenges in health systems. These include health resources, technology and management of medical devices. The role of private business in public health is also explored. The final section contains a variety of issues related to global health. This includes the rise of NCDs in low and middle income countries, neglected diseases related to poverty and health and longevity medicine. A chapter of alcoholism and mortality examines the effects of a public health system breakdown.

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  • If you already have health problems that are likely to mean you will need long-term care (for example, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease), you probably won’t be able to buy a policy. Insurance companies have medical underwriting standards to keep the cost of long-term care insurance affordable. Without such standards, most people would not buy coverage until they needed long-term care services. Some states have a regulation requiring the insurance company and the agent to go through a worksheet with you to decide if long-term care insurance is right for you.

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