Ninety million people migrate for work globally every year and an increasing
percentage of those workers are moving between emerging economies, rather
than to industrialized nations. Otherwise known as South-South labor migrants,
these workers are filling jobs in manufacturing, agriculture, construction and
service industries in countries like Malaysia, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan
and Egypt. Migrant workers provide a cost-effective and hardworking labor
force in labor-intensive industries, but they are also vulnerable, isolated and
often heavily indebted.
Unemployment and under-employment have increased continuously over the last five years,
encouraging internal and external migration. Unemployment currently affects 11% of the labour
force and the informal sector accounts for more than 65% of economic activity, providing
sources of marginal employment and under-employment to a large percentage of adults of
working age and even to school-age children.
The numerous limitations faced by women,
particularly in rural areas, have compelled them to
look for alternative options in other places. For
example, in Latin America, a great part of the
migrations from rural areas during the 1960s and
1970s was made up of women seeking better
opportunities as maids in cities (Villarreal 1996). In
recent decades, rural women have continued to
migrate to urban areas and, besides domestic
work, they are also employed in export assembly
plants or maquilas, particularly in Central America
(Vargas-Lundius 2007, 221-27).
Benefits Realized by the Customer:
BGX/ACE systems support rapid change, maintenance and turn-up of new services, creating faster generation
of revenues and decreased costs of technical labor and service downtime. Technicians are no longer forced
to work in crowded splice cases. The risk of cutting the wrong fiber or knocking down live service is virtually
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Technicians access the network at virtually any time without inconveniencing customers and without
requiring expensive new structures....
As most readers know, evolutionary biology took off only
after it was synthesized with population genetics in the
1920s and 1930’s (Fisher 1930). Mathematical treatments
of allele frequencies that incorporated selection, drift,
mutation, and migration made it possible to begin to
understand the forces that shaped the genome. As Lewon-
tin (1974) has noted, however, this theory developed
separately from breeder’s theories about selection for
phenotypes; the task of mapping changes in allele frequency
to changes in phenotype remains a challenge.
Many have gone above and beyond the
call of duty to make this special issue
possible. The editorial team at Forced
Migration Review has been the anchor
on which we have all relied. The
authors of the articles and those who
submitted pieces we could not include
deserve special recognition. Their work
was done after-hours, often in the field
during time they did not have. Ricardo
Ernst, my fellow guest editor, has been
an able partner responding with feed-
back from all corners of the globe.
Nepal has witnessed massive political upheaval during the past decade with insurgency forces actively
expressing dissatisfaction with the existing status quo. It was in early 1996 that the Maoist insurgency
took root in the country exerting a tremendous influence on the social, economic and political life of
the country. The constant conflict forced the Nepalese people to migrate from rural to urban areas and
to neighboring countries, resulting in the displacement of a large proportion of the population and
impacting the demographic situation.