(BQ) Part 2 book "Textbook of biochemistry" presents the following contents: Electrolyte and water balance, metabolic diseases, free radicals and antioxidants, mineral metabolism and abnormalities, energy metabolism and nutrition, nucleotides chemistry and metabolism,... Invite you to consult.
Tham khảo sách 'mineral requirements for military personnel: levels needed for cognitive and physical performance during garrison training', khoa học tự nhiên, vật lý phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
HIGHER PLANTS ARE AUTOTROPHIC ORGANISMS that can synthesize their organic molecular components out of inorganic nutrients obtained from their surroundings. For many mineral nutrients, this process involves absorption from the soil by the roots (see Chapter 5) and incorporation into the organic compounds that are essential for growth and development. This incorporation of mineral nutrients into organic substances such as pigments, enzyme cofactors, lipids, nucleic acids, and amino acids is termed nutrient assimilation....
Flavonoids constitute a large family of polyphenols that contribute to the aroma, taste, and color of fruits and vegetables. Major groups of dietary flavonoids include anthocyanidins in berries; catechins in green tea and chocolate; flavonols (e.g., quercitin) in broccoli, kale, leeks, onion, and the skins of grapes and apples; and isoflavones (e.g., genistein) in legumes. Isoflavones have a low bioavailability and are partially metabolized by the intestinal flora.
Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a role in gene expression, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis and serves as a CO 2 carrier on the surface of both cytosolic and mitochondrial carboxylase enzymes. The vitamin also functions in the catabolism of specific amino acids (e.g., leucine). Excellent food sources of biotin include organ meat such as liver or kidney, soy, beans, yeast, and egg yolks; however, egg white contains the protein avidin, which strongly binds the vitamin and reduces its bioavailability.
Osteoporosis and fractures may increase due to hypoestrogenism in menopause and
cytochrome P450 inducing AEDs. Recent studies suggest lower bone mineral density (BMD)
in adults and children with epilepsy, irrespective of AED treatment.
Both idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy are associated with reduced BMD, with
the greatest reduction in symptomatic generalized epilepsy (Sheth & Hermann, 2008).
However, the pathophysiological underlying mechanisms are far from understood and likely
In the first volume of this two-volume book,
Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients
for the macronutrients were discussed. The absorption, metabolism, excretion, and function of the
various sources of energy as well as detailed discussions of the need for water and energy balance
were presented. The needs for the micronutrients, as well as explanations of how these nutrients
function in the body, were deferred to this, the second volume.
IN CHAPTER 5 WE DISCUSSED plants’ requirements for mineral nutrients and light in order to grow and complete their life cycle. Because living organisms interact with one another and their environment, mineral nutrients cycle through the biosphere. These cycles involve complex interactions, and each cycle is critical in its own right. Because the amount of matter in the biosphere remains constant, energy must be supplied to keep the cycles operational. Otherwise increasing entropy dictates that the flow of matter would ultimately stop.
IN BOTH NATURAL AND AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS, plants are frequently exposed to environmental stresses. Some environmental factors, such as air temperature, can become stressful in just a few minutes; others, such as soil water content, may take days to weeks, and factors such as soil mineral deficiencies can take months to become stressful. It has been estimated that because of stress resulting from climatic and soil conditions (abiotic factors) that are suboptimal, the yield of field-grown crops in the United States is only 22% of the genetic potential yield (Boyer 1982).
The current format of the United States Medical Licensing Examination
Step 1 (USMLE Step 1) exam emphasizes clinical vignettes—in single-bestanswer
multiple-choice format—as the only test question. The examination
is 350 questions broken into seven blocks of 50 questions each.
Examinees have one hour to complete each block.
Clinical Vignettes for the USMLE Step 1: Fourth Edition parallels this
format. The book contains 350 clinical vignette-style questions covering
the core basic sciences and was assembled based on the published content
outline for the USMLE Step 1.
The number of mineral elements that have been shown to have essential functions in the body has been increasing steadily since the 1950s. Major or macrominerals are required in relatively larger quantities ( 50 mg=(kg DM)) and include calcium, phosphorus, potassium....
(BQ) Part 2 book "Quick review of biochemistry for undergraduate" presents the following contents: Minerals, nutrition, nucleic acid chemistry, nucleic acid metabolism, molecular biology, molecular biology, acid base balance and disorders, organ function tests, organ function tests,...
Fluorosis is the result of an excessive intake of fluoride during enamel formation and calcification, usually the third month of gestation
through the eighth year after birth.When high concentrations of fluoride are absorbed by the body, the metabolic function of the
ameloblasts is altered, which leads to defective matrix formation and hypocalcification (Figure 7-2). This type of discoloration can
affect the primary and the permanent dentition. Histologically, a hypomineralized porous subsurface, covered by a well-mineralized
surface enamel layer, is observed.
Liver fibrosis ranks as the second cause of death in México's productive-age population. This pathology is characterized by acummulation of fibrillar proteins in hepatic parenchyma causing synthetic and metabolic disfunction. Remotion of excessive fibrous proteins might result in benefit for subjects increasing survival index. The goal of this work was to find whether the already known therapeutical effect of human urokinase Plasminogen Activator and human Matrix Metalloprotease 8 extends survival index in cirrhotic animals.
Geobiology is a highly cross-disciplinary field that
explores the present and past relationships that life has
with non-living matter. “Biosphere meets Geosphere” per-
haps most parsimoniously describes the fundamental con-
cept of Geobiology. In 1991, Peter Westbroek, a Dutch
paleontologist and influential protagonist of Geobiology
defined the field in a book entitled “Life as a Geological
Force: Dynamics of the Earth”, thus motivating a new
way of thinking in the geosciences.
Hypophosphatasia, a congenital metabolic disease related to the tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene (TNSALP), is characterized by reduced
serum alkaline phosphatase levels and defective mineralization of hard tis-sues. A replacement of valine with alanine at position 406, located in the
crown domain of TNSALP, was reported in a perinatal form of hypophos-phatasia.
Bone is the major constituent of the skeleton which is a hallmark of all higher vertebrates.
Besides the protection of internal organs and the support of body structures,
the most important functions of bone are to serve as an attachment site for
muscles allowing locomotion and provide a cavity for hematopoiesis in the bone
marrow (Mendez-Ferrer et al. 2010; Zaidi 2007). Moreover, bone has a central role
in mineral homeostasis as it functions as a reservoir for inorganic ions that can be
mobilized rapidly on metabolic demand...