Mineral processing

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  • Bone alkaline phosphatase with glycolipid anchor (GPI-bALP) from chick embryo femurs in a medium without exogenous inorganic phosphate,but containing calcium and GPI-bALP substrates,served asin vitro model of min-eral formation. The mineralization process was initiated by the formation of inorganic phosphate,arising from the hydrolysis of a substrate by GPI-bALP. Several minerali-zation media containing different substrates were analysed after an incubation time ranging from 1.5 h to 144 h.

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  • Microwave heating has found many applications ranging from the microwave ovens in kitchen to heat food, to a sterilization apparatus for medical treatment, to materials processing in the various fields. In those applications, microwave heating demonstrates significant advantages over conventional methods in reduced processing time and less environmental impacts. This book is comprised of eight chapters within three parts highlighting different aspects covering both the basic understandings and the advanced applications....

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  • The increasing global demand for processed foods has led to a greater prominence of the food industry, its specific needs and processing challenges. Consequently, in recent times the role of the engineer in the food industry has gained considerable prominence. In contrast to other more traditional processing industries, the raw materials or ingredients that are used tend to be of greater complexity in nature.

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  • The book offers comprehensive coverage of the broad range of scientific knowledge in the fields of advances in induction and microwave heating of mineral and organic materials. Beginning with industry application in many areas of practical application to mineral materials and ending with raw materials of agriculture origin the authors, specialists in different scientific area, present their results in the two sections: Section 1-Induction and Microwave Heating of Mineral Materials, and Section 2-Microwave Heating of Organic Materials....

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  • MINERAL NUTRIENTS ARE ELEMENTS acquired primarily in the form of inorganic ions from the soil. Although mineral nutrients continually cycle through all organisms, they enter the biosphere predominantly through the root systems of plants, so in a sense plants act as the “miners” of Earth’s crust (Epstein 1999). The large surface area of roots and their ability to absorb inorganic ions at low concentrations from the soil solution make mineral absorption by plants a very effective process.

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  • Vitamin E Deficiency: Treatment Symptomatic vitamin E deficiency should be treated with 800–1200 mg of αtocopherol per day. Patients with abetalipoproteinemia may need as much as 5000–7000 mg/d. Children with symptomatic vitamin E deficiency should be treated with 400 mg/d orally of water-miscible esters; alternatively, 2 mg/kg per d may be administered intramuscularly. Vitamin E in high doses may protect against oxygen-induced retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity.

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  • Do you want to grow mushrooms? There are plenty of reasons to do so. Mushrooms are a good cash crop; they are rather easy to grow and are brimming with protein, B vitamins and minerals. They even have medicinal properties. Time between spawning and harvesting can be as short as three weeks. Furthermore, after the cultivation, you can still use the substrate as a good soil conditioner. This Agrodok gives you detailed information on the cultivation of oyster, shiitake and wood ear mushrooms.

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  • This book is about what we consider the essentials of human nutrition. The science of human nutrition deals with all the effects on people of any component found in food. This starts with the physiological and biochemical processes involved in nourishment—how substances in food provide energy or are converted into body tissues, and the diseases that result from insufficiency or excess of essential nutrients (malnutrition). The role of food components in the development of chronic degenerative disease like coronary heart disease, cancers, dental caries, etc.

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  • For much of history, few things have mattered more to humans than their relations with soil. This is evidenced by a rich historical literature on aspects of soil management and soil fertility, dating back to texts of ancient civilizations of the Middle East, the Mediterranean, China, and India (see McNeill and Winiwarter 2004).

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  • Using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method for multi-index evaluation has special advantages, while the use of geographic information systems (GIS) is suitable for spatial analysis. Combining AHP with GIS provides an effective approach for studies of mineral potential mapping evaluation. Selection of potential areas for exploration is a complex process in which many diverse criteria are to be considered.

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  • WATER PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE in the life of the plant. For every gram of organic matter made by the plant, approximately 500 g of water is absorbed by the roots, transported through the plant body and lost to the atmosphere. Even slight imbalances in this flow of water can cause water deficits and severe malfunctioning of many cellular processes. Thus, every plant must delicately balance its uptake and loss of water. This balancing is a serious challenge for land plants. To carry on photosynthesis, they need to draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but doing so exposes them to...

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  • HIGHER PLANTS ARE AUTOTROPHIC ORGANISMS that can synthesize their organic molecular components out of inorganic nutrients obtained from their surroundings. For many mineral nutrients, this process involves absorption from the soil by the roots (see Chapter 5) and incorporation into the organic compounds that are essential for growth and development. This incorporation of mineral nutrients into organic substances such as pigments, enzyme cofactors, lipids, nucleic acids, and amino acids is termed nutrient assimilation....

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  • As the title, “Recent Researches in Metallurgical Engineering, From Extraction to Forming” implies, this text blends new theories with practices covering a broad field of metalrelated technologies including mineral processing, extractive metallurgy, heat treatment and casting. This book is divided into different 5 chapters. Each of the chapters is a review of the research made by the authors during the last decade, and includes references to the research published in scientific papers and conference proceedings by experts in the field....

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  • SAS defines data mining as the process of uncovering hidden patterns in large amounts of data. Many industries use data mining to address business problems and opportunities such as fraud detection, risk and affinity analyses, database marketing, householding, customer churn, bankruptcy prediction, and portfolio analysis.The SAS data mining process is summarized in the acronym SEMMA, which stands for sampling, exploring, modifying, modeling, and assessing data.

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  • Fluorosis is the result of an excessive intake of fluoride during enamel formation and calcification, usually the third month of gestation through the eighth year after birth.When high concentrations of fluoride are absorbed by the body, the metabolic function of the ameloblasts is altered, which leads to defective matrix formation and hypocalcification (Figure 7-2). This type of discoloration can affect the primary and the permanent dentition. Histologically, a hypomineralized porous subsurface, covered by a well-mineralized surface enamel layer, is observed.

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  • Depletion of mineral resources is one of the major problems in the world. We have consumed available resources as if they were unlimited, and at the same time we generate a huge quantity of waste, thereby contaminating the Earth. The amount of waste in our society reflects how much resources we consume. We, as modern society, create more products and packaging which is visually appealing but cannot be easily decomposed. Energy demands, resource limitations, and environmental pollution are closely linked.

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  • Reliable and cost-effective monitoring will be an important part of making GS a safe, effective, and acceptable method for CO2 control. Monitoring will be required as part of the permitting process for underground injection and will be used for a number of purposes, such as tracking the location of the plume of injected CO2, ensuring that injection and abandoned wells are not leaking, and verifying the quantity of CO2 that has been injected underground.

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  • This research effort is dedicated to my family, in particular to my mother, LI Yun who has always stood by my side, encouraging and supporting me through the entire process. She talked to me when I faced some difficulties and almost gave up. She taught me hard work disciplines and made me continue my research and this also served me well in all aspect in my life. Additionally, I would like to dedicate this to my best friends, Ziming Zhao, Marianela Rivera, Yuan Cai. Thanks for being there whenever I need you. You are more than friends. You are my...

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  • Since the book on the Geology of Nigeria by C.A. Kogbe, published by Elizabethan Publishing Company, appeared in 1976, no other attempt has been made to review, collate and publish the advances made in the geology of Nigeria in a comprehensive format. Yet over the years, many studies, evaluations and re-evaluations have been undertaken in many aspects of the geology of Nigeria. Kogbe’s book on the Geology of Nigeria remained the only reference book in the aspect of understanding the regional geology of Nigeria....

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  • Prescription and over-the-counter drugs help millions of people with devastat-ing diseases and chronic conditions. But in the process, these medications can also deplete the body’s natural stores of vitamins, minerals, and hormones—the very nutrients you need to keep energy levels high, fend off infections, and be healthy. Pharmacist Suzy Cohen calls these medications “drug muggers,” and she says it’s essential to replenish what a drug mugger steals from your body in order to feel your best and avoid side effects.

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