Minerals policy

Xem 1-17 trên 17 kết quả Minerals policy
  • Raw materials mark the beginning of a value-added chain. In times of increasing globalization their availability is a precondition for prosperity, productivity and development of a country’s economy. Raw materials have always been needed for many purposes. Global demand had its origin in the Bronze and Iron Ages and increased exponentially during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century. Worldwide demand for raw materials rapidly increased in the 20th Century, caused by the explosive growth of the world population and global economic productivity.

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  • There are few areas of economic policy- making in which the returns to good decisions are so high – and the punishment of bad decisions so cruel – as in the management of natural resource wealth. Rich endowments of oil, gas and minerals have set some coun- tries on courses of sustained and robust prosperity; but they have left others riddled with corruption and persistent poverty, with little of lasting value to show for squandered wealth. And amongst the most important of these decisions are those relating to the tax treatment of oil, gas and minerals....

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  • Plants are continuously affected by a variety of environmental factors. Whereas biotic environmental factors are other organisms such as symbionts, parasites, pathogens, herbivores, and competitors, abiotic factors include parameters and resources which determine plant growth like temperature, relative humidity, light, availability of water, mineral nutrients, and CO 2 , as well as wind, ionizing radiation, or pollutants (Schulze et al. 2002 ) . The effect each abiotic factor has on the plant depends on its quantity or intensity.

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  • » Organizational structures and policies themselves can serve as risk controls. Segregation of duties, independence of control functions from business lines, and the use of committees or other, more informal approaches for breaking down silos between business units or departments are among a variety of organizational practices that may facilitate effective risk management. Although there is a tension between segregating functions and breaking down silos to facilitate information exchange, risk management requires a bit of both....

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  • To obtain the best practical diet (in terms growth rate, survival rate, feed conversion ratio and water quality) which can replace the Vital feed (an expensive feed for Kuruma prawn) and trash fish under laboratory conditions. Activities 1. Conduct Experiment 1: to test three practical diets: a) the "best" diet from Vu-anh Tuan' s PhD research; b) Diet a) plus additives (e.g., vitamins and minerals); and c) Diet b) with further supplement (e.g., vitamins and minerals plus mixed enzymes). 2.

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  • The engineering profession must adapt to the new low carbon paradigm well ahead of society as a whole in order to provide the necessary leadership in design and the direction of policy. The professional engineering institutions and trade associations must all recognise a multi-disciplinary, problem solving approach that over-turns conventional partisan relationships and embraces a systemic approach to construction. All contributors to construction projects must be prepared to provide leadership in their area of expertise, but work with others to link knowledge across existing boundaries.

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  • By far the most important for the present publication, in terms of the quantity mined and potential impact on the environment, are phosphate and potash. The production of phosphorous and potassium min- eral fertilizers relies essentially on the mining of mineral concentrations, in the form of ore deposits from the earth's crust. Nitrogen mineral fertilizers, on the other hand, are almost entirely based on ammonia manufactured from the abundant source of atmos- pheric nitrogen, water and energy.

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  • Leading mining companies have taken up the chal- lenge and are pushing beyond minimum legal requirements through voluntary initiatives, to ensure their continued “license-to-operate” from the com- munity as well as increasing their competitive advantage through continuous, voluntary improve- ments in environmental performance. As with all mining activities, the extraction and bene- ficiation of phosphate rock and potash to produce mineral fertilizer raw material has the potential to cause environmental impacts.

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  • In determining what a normal production level is for an insurable farmer, USDA requires the producer to present actual annual crop yields (usually stated on a bushel-per-acre basis) for the last 4 to 10 years. The simple average of a producer’s annual crop yield over this time period then serves as the producer’s actual production history (APH). If a farmer does not have adequate records, he can be assigned a transition yield (T-yield) for each missing year of data, which is based on average county yields for the crop.

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  • Omission of minerals is just one of the issues addressed in the construction of environmental accounts. Still, extending the nipa to include minerals is a natural starting point for the project of environmental accounting. These assets— which include notably petroleum, natural gas, coal, and nonfuel minerals—are already part of the market economy and have important links to environmental policy. Indeed, production from these assets is already included in the nation’s gross domestic product (gdp).

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  • In this paper we propose enhancing Web clients with new security mechanisms that can not only prevent ex- isting attacks, but are able to enforce all security policies based on monitoring client behavior. In particular, our new mechanisms support policies that range from disal- lowing use of certain Web client features (e.g., IFRAMEs or OBJECTs) to fine-grained, application-specific invari- ants such as taint-based policies that regulate the flow of credit-card information input by the user.

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  • The table reveals that no previous study has used productivity growth or growth in value added as growth indicators to define HGFs when their economic contribution has been analyzed. 6 Productivity has been discussed in the literature on HGFs prior to this paper (Acs et al., 2008; Fritsch and Mueller, 2004; Littunen and Thomo, 2003). However, little has been made of this observation. Fritsch and Mueller (2004) stress the difficulties in gathering data on productivity, which can explain why no previous study has explicitly addressed this issue.

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  • The purpose of this paper is to understand the determinants of child health. In particular, we will focus on the influence of household consumption and public infrastructure on child health. This would inform policy makers when setting priorities among different interventions. It is important to understand whether different policies are substitutes or complements. Poverty and low education could cause bottlenecks, not allowing other public policies to influence child health.

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  • This paper addresses these challenges by approaching child health policy re- form from a system-transformation perspective.

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  • Some twenty five countries have experimented with environmental accounting over the past twenty years. A few European countries have established physical accounting systems which are routinely compiled and applied to economic and environmental policy-making. Many other countries have undertaken more limited or one-time experiments and case studies with monetary environmental accounts, focused on issues such as forestry, soil erosion, and minerals depletion. A few examples suggest the richness of their experience.

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  • China is known for its large population, vast territory, and rich natural resources. China has a population of more than 1.1 billion, an area of 9.6 million square kilometres, and identified reserves of 150 different minerals. The Chinese economy has been growing steadily since 1949, and especially in recent decades, the implementation of economic reform and the adoption of an "open door" policy have exercised a great influence on Chinese economic development. China's GNP has grown from about RBM 360 billion in 1978 to nearly RBM 1,800 billion in 1990, a five-fold increase.

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  • Many are also concerned that countries will use SWFs to support what one analyst has called “state capitalism,” using government-controlled assets to secure stakes around the world in strategic areas such as telecommunications, energy and mineral resources, and financial services, among other sectors.

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