Our first chapter puts LTE into its historical context, and lays out its requirements and key
technical features. We begin by reviewing the architectures of UMTS and GSM, and
by introducing some of the terminology that the two systems use. We then summarize
the history of mobile telecommunication systems, discuss the issues that have driven the
development of LTE, and show how UMTS has evolved first into LTE and then into an
enhanced version known as LTE-Advanced. The chapter closes by reviewing the standardization
process for LTE....
The third generation (3G) mobile communication system is the next big thing in the world of mobile telecommunications. The first generation included analog mobile phones [e.g., Total Access Communications Systems (TACS), Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT), and Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)], and the second generation (2G) included digital mobile phones [e.g., global system for mobile communications (GSM), personal digital cellular (PDC), and digital AMPS (D-AMPS)].
As stated in Chapter 1, Section 1.2, requirements for International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) include system ﬂexibility, economy and conditions on data transmission speed deﬁned in numerical terms. The minimum performance requirement in terms of transmission speed is 2 Mbit/s in an indoor environment, 384 kbit/s in a pedestrian mode and 144 kbit/s in a vehicle mode.
The previous chapters have concentrated on the two leading second generation (2G) cellular systems: GSM and IS-95. These systems are deployed in many parts of the world and will continue to operate and evolve during the next decade as third generation (3G) systems are rolled out. We may expect that the new 3G systems will be harmonised with their evolved 2G counterparts, and that slowly 2G spectra will be refarmed to provide extra 3G spectra. No 3G systems are currently deployed, although trials are in progress. As a consequence, this chapter, which deals with systems that are about to be...
This book focuses on issues related to multiple access for cellular mobile communications,
with a specific interest in access arbitration through multiple access protocols situated at
the lower sub-layer of the second OSI layer, namely the medium access control (MAC)
In this chapter, first an introduction to cellular mobile communication systems is
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: System-Level Performance of Antenna Arrays in CDMA-Based Cellular Mobile Radio Systems
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài:
Research Article Throughput of Cellular Systems with Conferencing Mobiles and Cooperative Base Stations
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile), is a standard set developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe technologies for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks. Developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular networks, the GSM standard originally described a digital, circuit switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony.
Generation Change in Cellular Systems
In Japan, mobile communications systems based on cellular technology have evolved, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. The ﬁrst-generation analog car phones were ﬁrst introduced in 1979, followed by the commercialization of the second-generation digital phones in 1993. Mobile phone subscribers have rapidly increased in number since then, owing to the liberation of terminal sales and continuous price reductions. In March 2000, the number of mobile phone subscribers outnumbered those of ﬁxed telephones.
The last decade proved to be hugely successful for the mobile communications industry,
characterised by continued and rapid growth in demand, spurred on by new technological
advances and innovative marketing techniques. Of course, when we refer to mobile communications,
we tend to implicitly refer to cellular systems, such as GSM. The plight of the
mobile-satellite industry over the last decade, although eventful, has, at times, been more akin
to an out of control roller coaster ride.
Be familiar with the development of 2G mobile systems. Describe the architecture of a GSM network. Appreciate the main services provided within a GSM network. Understand the various facets of the GSM air interface including, access structures, frequency allocations, physical and logical channels.
The Distribution system interconnects multiple BSSs. 802.11 standard logically separates the wireless
medium from the distribution system – it does not
preclude, nor demand, that the multiple media be
same or different. An Access Point (AP) is a STA that provides access
to the DS by providing DS services in addition to
acting as a STA.
Mobile communication networks were commercially launched as Circuit-Switched (CS) systems centering on speech communication services. The First-Generation (1G) analog system evolved into the Second-Generation (2G) digital system, followed by the introduction of Packet-Switched (PS) communication system. These conventional mobile communication systems were realized with different technologies by country and region, and there was no internationally uniﬁed standard.
The Information Technology Laboratory (ITL) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) promotes the U.S. economy and public welfare by providing technical leadership for the Nation’s
measurement and standards infrastructure. ITL develops tests, test methods, reference data, proof of concept implementations, and technical analyses to advance the development and productive use of
As discussed in the previous chapters, the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) system is now an up-and-running system after its studies commenced in 1985 in pursuit of a future mobile communications system. IMT-2000 is expected to develop further into a more advanced and diversiﬁed system in response to growing demand and need. Efforts to make the IMT-2000 system more sophisticated are continuing at the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and at various other organizations.
Outline of Lecture 4: Cellular Concepts, Dealing with Mobility (Handover, Mobility Management). Rationale behind cellular systems: Solves the problem of spectral congestion and increases user capacity, Offer very high capacity in a limited spectrum.