In this article, compound processing for translation into German in a factored statistical MT system is investigated. Compounds are handled by splitting them prior to training, and merging the parts after translation. I have explored eight merging strategies using different combinations of external knowledge sources, such as word lists, and internal sources that are carried through the translation process, such as symbols or parts-of-speech. I show that for merging to be successful, some internal knowledge source is needed.
Research on the discovery of terms from corpora has focused on word sequences whose recurrent occurrence in a corpus is indicative of their terminological status, and has not addressed the issue of discovering terms when data is sparse. This becomes apparent in the case of noun compounding, which is extremely productive: more than half of the candidate compounds extracted from a corpus are attested only once. We show how evidence about established (i.e.
In this work I address the challenge of augmenting n-gram language models according to prior linguistic intuitions. I argue that the family of hierarchical Pitman-Yor language models is an attractive vehicle through which to address the problem, and demonstrate the approach by proposing a model for German compounds. In an empirical evaluation, the model outperforms the Kneser-Ney model in terms of perplexity, and achieves preliminary improvements in English-German translation.
There are several theories regarding what inﬂuences prominence assignment in English noun-noun compounds. We have developed corpus-driven models for automatically predicting prominence assignment in noun-noun compounds using feature sets based on two such theories: the informativeness theory and the semantic composition theory. The evaluation of the prediction models indicate that though both of these theories are relevant, they account for different types of variability in prominence assignment. ...
Splitting compound words has proved to be useful in areas such as Machine Translation, Speech Recognition or Information Retrieval (IR). Furthermore, real-time IR systems (such as search engines) need to cope with noisy data, as user queries are sometimes written quickly and submitted without review. In this paper we apply a state-of-the-art procedure for German decompounding to other compounding languages, and we show that it is possible to have a single decompounding model that is applicable across languages. ...
Purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) fromPhanerocha-ete chrysosporiumoxidizes nonphenolicb-1 diarylpropane
lignin model compounds in the presence of Tween 80,and
in three- to fourfold lower yield in its absence.
In section 2 we gave a review of the general outsourcing literature along with
examples from the furniture industry. In this section we will provide a description of the
simulation model that is developed to illustrate the supply chain structure of a typical
furniture manufacturer in Mississippi. The simulation model allows managers of furniture
companies to estimate the impact of various decisions related to outsourcing on the
performance of the supply chain. The model is used to perform “what-if” analyses.
A variety of statistical methods for noun compound anMysis are implemented and compared. The results support two main conclusions. First, the use of conceptual association not only enables a broad coverage, but also improves the accuracy. Second, an analysis model based on dependency grammar is substantially more accurate than one based on deepest constituents, even though the latter is more prevalent in the literature.
Compounded words are a challenge for NLP applications such as machine translation (MT). We introduce methods to learn splitting rules from monolingual and parallel corpora. We evaluate them against a gold standard and measure their impact on performance of statistical MT systems. Results show accuracy of 99.1% and performance gains for MT of 0.039 BLEU on a German-English noun phrase translation task.
The paper presents a morpho-lexical environment, designed for the management of rootoriented natural language dictionaries. It also encapsulates the basic morpho-lexical processings: analysis and synthesis of individual word-forms or compounds (idioms and analytic constructions).
A simple model of earnings, operating cash flows, and accruals developed in this section generates an explanation for the negative serial correlation in operating cash flow changes. Increases (decreases) in sales generate contemporaneous outlays (inflows) for working capital increases (decreases) that are followed in the next period by cash inflows (outflows). The result is negative serial correlation in cash flow changes. Accruals exclude the contemporaneous one-time outflows for working capital from the current period's earnings and incorporate forecasts of permanent future cash inflows.
Natural products are a constant source of potentially active compounds for the treatment of various disorders. The Middle East and tropical regions are believed to have the richest supplies of natural products in the world. Plant derived secondary metabolites have been used by humans to treat acute infections, health disorders and chronic illness for tens of thousands of years. Only during the last 100 years have natural products been largely replaced by synthetic drugs.
This however brings about
models and simulation, which is now applied generally to look into the inter-relationship
between the parameters and its resultant effects on the environments (Abdulkareem et al.,
2011). In this work, mathematical modelling that can be used to predict the quantity of heat
radiation from gas flaring station will be developed. The developed model will be simulated
and find interaction between various parameters such as distance, volume of gas flared,
flared stack efficiency that influence the rate of heat radiation from gas flaring station.
Given the considerable variation in deposit insurance arrangements and the relatively
large number of banking crises, it is possible to use this panel to test whether the nature of the
deposit insurance system has a significant impact on the probability of a banking crisis once
other factors are controlled for. We carry out these tests using the multivariate logit econometric
model developed in our previous work on the determinants of banking crises (Demirg†e-Kunt
and Detragiache, 1998).
All of this highlights the desirability of a framework that will identify priorities for
improved environmental accounting. This paper derives such a framework by exploring the
determinants of the value of information in a corporate decision-making context. The paper
proceeds as follows. The next section defines environmental accounting and the meaning of
"improved" information, and discusses the costs associated with those improvements. Section 3
describes the economic value of information in general terms.
The last two explanatory variables are control variables, while the remaining
variables are the corporate governance variables that we discussed in Section
VA. As discussed in Section II, the signs of most of these variables are
empirical issues, so we use the observed signs to interpret our results.
The top section of Table 7 shows estimates of four variants of equation
(6) for the full sample.
These guidelines specify standard appraisal procedures for Japanese real
estate appraisers (the only profession that is licensed and registered by the
government by law. Hereinafter “Japanese Appraisers”) to appraise overseas
real estate for investment purposes.
As the globalization of the real estate market progresses, cross-border real
estate investment is gaining momentum. In addition, real estate investment
trust (REIT) markets have been set up in the past few years, and
international competition in real estate markets is heightening rapidly....
A midwife’s focus is to enable all women and their families to have a
positive and safe experience of pregnancy, birth and early parenting.
A social model of maternity care where women, rather than the
organisation, are at the centre is a key feature of midwifery-led care20.
Women value care that is personalised and coordinated by a midwife
they know and trust and should be offered a choice of place of birth
taking account of individual needs, risks and circumstances. One-to-one
support in established labour results in better outcomes for women and
this is a key role of the midwife.
In order to establish the preferred shopping places for food, consumers were asked to
indicate what shop they traditionally buy their groceries from. Six places were identified
from past research as: supermarket, spaza shops (which are common in rural areas),
Grocery stores, Farmers markets such as the Kei Fresh produce in Mthatha or the farmers
market in Wilsonia, East London, Street vendors or the farm gate. Respondents’ were
free to mark all the choices. An overwhelming majority of the respondents, 96% in the
Transkei and 89.