During the past two decades, reductionist biological science has generated new
empirical data on the molecular foundations of biological structure and function
at an accelerating rate. The list of organisms whose complete genomes have been
sequenced is growing by the week. Annotations of these sequences are becoming
more comprehensive, and databases of protein structure are growing at impressive,
indeed formerly unimaginable rates.
Biological signal analysis1 encompasses several interdisciplinary topics that deal with analysing
signals generated by various physiological processes in the human body. These signals could be
electrical, chemical or acoustic in origin and an analysis of these signals are often useful in
explaining and/or identifying pathological conditions of the human body. However, these signals in
their rawest form do not provide much information and therefore, the motivation behind biological
signal analysis is to extract (i.e. to reveal) the relevant information.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học Journal of Biology đề tài: The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes: an emerging model in prokaryotic transcriptomics...
A relationship in relational parlance is a table with columns and rows.* A row in the
database represents an instance of the relation. Conceptually, you can picture a table
as a spreadsheet. Rows in the spreadsheet are analogous to rows in a table, and the
spreadsheet columns are analogous to table attributes. The job of the relational data
architect is to fit the data for a specific problem domain into this relational model.
To get interested consumers to your website, the site needs to be visible to surfers
using Google. Why is Google so important? The research firm Hitwise which measures
Web audiences, estimates that Google has 72% of the US search engine market,
versus 17.9 % for Yahoo. Microsoft’s two search services, MSN and Live.com,
constitute a distant third, at a combined 5.4 percent. Many website owners who track
where their visitors come from report that Google’s search engine now refers 80 to 90%
of their visitors.
For optimal results on Google you will want...
For instance, based on the pure management fee model
described above, a fund with a 1.5% management fee and
fixed expenses of $600,000 would break even at $40 mil-
lion in AUM. By decreasing fixed expenses by $60,000, or
10%, the fund’s breakeven AUM drops by $4 million to $36 million. Stated differently, $15,000 in fixed
expenses equates to $1 million in AUM.
Mathematical modelling is the process of formulating an abstract model
in terms of mathematical language to describe the complex behaviour of
a real system. Mathematical models are quantitative models and often
expressed in terms of ordinary differential equations and partial differential
equations. Mathematical models can also be statistical models,
fuzzy logic models and empirical relationships. In fact, any model description
using mathematical language can be called a mathematical
Eventually investment banks developed a clear policy line in their newsletters, and
some proposed changes to the Pact along these lines. For example, Morgan Stanley’s
(07/11/02) views were in line with the ECB, arguing that the Pact is not
fundamentally flawed, but a valuable compromise, which should be kept as a
framework for fiscal policies in EMU. Countries not complying with the Pact should
not try to change the rules since it is their responsibility that they have not done
enough to consolidate their public finances in good times.
Mathematical Modeling I – preliminary is designed for undergraduate students. Two other followup
books, Mathematical Modeling II – advanced and Mathematical Modeling III – case studies in biology,
will be published. II and III will be designed for both graduate students and undergraduate students.
All the three books are independent and useful for study and application of mathematical modeling in
In order to establish the preferred shopping places for food, consumers were asked to
indicate what shop they traditionally buy their groceries from. Six places were identified
from past research as: supermarket, spaza shops (which are common in rural areas),
Grocery stores, Farmers markets such as the Kei Fresh produce in Mthatha or the farmers
market in Wilsonia, East London, Street vendors or the farm gate. Respondents’ were
free to mark all the choices. An overwhelming majority of the respondents, 96% in the
Transkei and 89.
As they make these decisions, policymakers will need to consider the
distortions caused by prolonged conditions of monetary ease. After all,
sustained low interest rates have been identified by many as an important
factor that contributed to the crisis (see BIS, 79th Annual Report, Chapter I).
At the same time, policymakers should also closely monitor the distortions
arising from unconventional monetary policy tools. These include price
distortions in bond markets that can result from changes in central banks’
criteria for eligible repo collateral and from their asset purchases.
The Center for Audit Quality (CAQ) was founded in order to promote a robust dialogue about
issues of importance to the U.S. capital markets for the benefit of investors, the public company
auditing profession and the markets as a whole. As part of that mission, the CAQ recently
commissioned a survey to examine an essential participant in the preparation of audited
financial statements: audit committees.
When an item is published to a Semantic Bank, tags assigned to it are carried along. As a conse-
quence, the bank’s members pool together not only the information items they have collected but
also their organization schemes applied on those items.
The technique of pooling together keywords has recently gained popularity through services
such as del.icio.us , Flickr , and CiteULike  as a means for a community to collab-
oratively build over time a taxonomy for the data they share.
The auditor must be independent of the issuer and — in the case of mutual funds, independent of the investment company
complex. Audit committees should be familiar with the statutory and regulatory independence requirements for auditors,
including requirements that the auditor advise the audit committee of any services or relationships that reasonably can be
thought to bear on the firm’s independence.
The technical competence of the auditor alone is not sufficient to ensure a high-quality audit. The auditor also must exercise
a high level of objectivity and professional skepticism.
In Africa after independence, many countries attempted to ‘modernize’ their agricultural sectors through
large-scale farming, providing subsidized credit, machinery, and land. These efforts almost universally
failed (Eicher and Baker 1992). One of the largest and most well-documented cases was mechanized large
scale sorghum and sesame production in Sudan that originated in attempts by financiers from the Gulf
following the 1970s oil price spike, to transform the country into a regional breadbasket.
New social networking methods were developed by the end of the 1990s, and many sites began to develop more
advanced features for users to find and manage friends.
This newer generation of social networking sites began to
flourish with the emergence of Friendster in 2002,
and soon became part of the Internet mainstream. Friendster
was followed by MySpace and LinkedIn a year later, and finally, Bebo. Attesting to the rapid increase in social
networking sites' popularity, by 2005, MySpace was reportedly getting more page views than Google.
The attendant “green house effect” is one of the most
frightening environmental problems of our time. Ozone layers that serve as blanket for
regulating the earth’s temperature are stripped as a resulting of gas flaring thereby causing
global warming (Ikelegbe, 1993). In spite of advances in technology and the potential to
convert the flared gas into a source of enormous nation revenue, the practices has continued
in Nigeria, ostensibly underscoring the problems of our national development (Oyekunle,
1999; Akpan, 2009).
Against this backdrop, UNEP has developed the Medium-term Strategy 2010–2013 in consultation with
the UNEP Committee of Permanent Representatives, the secretariats of UNEP-administered multilateral
environmental agreements and representatives of civil society and the private sector.
The Medium-term Strategy sets out the next phase in the evolution of UNEP as it becomes a more
effective, efficient and results-focused entity, meeting the expectations of Governments and its
stakeholders in responding to global environmental challenges and opportunities. ...
There has been considerable debate in Canada on the relative contributions of mercury from natural
sources versus releases to the environment from human activity. One of the challenges with this
debate is the lack of accurate information on mercury emissions, past and present. Scientists have ana-
lyzed sediment cores and determined that the levels of mercury in the environment today are more
than double what they were in pre-industrial times. They have also measured mercury in the atmos-
phere and found that it continues to increase globally at more than one per cent per year.
Second, it is becoming increasingly clear that psychological
models (Chatterjee, 2004b; Leder et al., 2004) have underspeciﬁed
affective processes involved in aesthetic appreciation. Some stud-
ies have identiﬁed activation in emotion-related brain regions,
such as the insula (Cupchik et al., 2009; Di Dio et al.