Ecotoxicological models have been applied increasingly to perform chemical risk assessments since the first models of this kind emerged about 25 years ago. The first ecotoxicological models were applied to very specific cases — for instance, cadmium contamination of Lake Erie or mercury contamination of Mex Bay, Alexandria. The models were inspired by the experience gained in ecological modeling and therefore contained good descriptions of ecological processes. Slightly later, the so-called fate models emerged, which were first developed by McKay and others.
For instance, based on the pure management fee model
described above, a fund with a 1.5% management fee and
fixed expenses of $600,000 would break even at $40 mil-
lion in AUM. By decreasing fixed expenses by $60,000, or
10%, the fund’s breakeven AUM drops by $4 million to $36 million. Stated differently, $15,000 in fixed
expenses equates to $1 million in AUM.
[ Team LiB ] 6.3 Expressions, Operators, and Operands Dataflow modeling describes the design in terms of expressions instead of primitive gates. Expressions, operators, and operands form the basis of dataflow modeling.
Research on coreference resolution and summarization has modeled the way entities are realized as concrete phrases in discourse. In particular there exist models of the noun phrase syntax used for discourse-new versus discourse-old referents, and models describing the likely distance between a pronoun and its antecedent. However, models of discourse coherence, as applied to information ordering tasks, have ignored these kinds of information.
Learning objectives for chapter 5: Explain the many reasons for creating information system models, describe three types of models and list some specific models used for analysis and design, explain how events can be used to define system requirements,…
The goals of this chapter are: Define and describe models, explain how to create a model, describe how to pass model data from controllers to view, explain how to create strongly typed models, explain the role of the model binder, explain how to use scaffolding in Visual Studio.NET.
The UML can be used to describe the complete development of relational and object relational
from business requirements through the physical data model. However, modeling of the
physical data model must express a detailed description of the database. This is done using Rational’s
Data Modeling Profile for the UML2
After providing the basic background in electromagnetic theory necessary to utilize the software, the author of Ebook Antenna and EM Modeling with Matlab describes the benefits and many practical uses of the Matlab. Sergey Makarov's text utilizes the widely used Matlab(r) software, which offers a more flexible and affordable alternative to other antenna and electromagnetic modeling tools currently available.
Model based testing is the most powerful technique for testing hardware and software systems. Models in Hardware Testing describes the use of models at all the levels of hardware testing. The relevant fault models for nanoscaled CMOS technology are introduced, and their implications on fault simulation, automatic test pattern generation, fault diagnosis, memory testing and power aware testing are discussed.
Understanding and quantitative describing of marine ecosystems requires an integration
of physics, chemistry and biology. The coupling between physics, which
regulates for example nutrient availability and the physical position of many organisms
is particularly important and thus cannot be described by biology alone.
Therefore the appropriate basis for theoretical investigations of marine systems are
coupled models, which integrate physical, chemical and biological interactions.
The book deals with the MOS Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) models that are derived from basic semiconductor theory. Various models are developed, ranging from simple to more sophisticated models that take into account new physical effects observed in submicron transistors used in today's (1993) MOS VLSI technology. The assumptions used to arrive at the models are emphasized so that the accuracy of the models in describing the device characteristics are clearly understood. Due to the importance of designing reliable circuits, device reliability models are also covered.
This chapter aims to clarify the concept of population balance model or population balance equation, terms that are used almost interchangeably in this book. This is followed by a short narrative of the strengths and weaknesses of these models. 1.1 What Are Population Balance Models? Population balance is not a well-defined concept in science and engineering, but means slightly different things to different people.
[ Team LiB ] 5.2 Gate Delays Until now, we described circuits without any delays (i.e., zero delay). In real circuits, logic gates have delays associated with them. Gate delays allow the Verilog user to specify delays through the logic circuits.
We describe a simple variant of the interpolated Markov model with non-emitting state transitions and prove that it is strictly more powerful than any Markov model. Empirical results demonstrate that the non-emitting model outperforms the interpolated model on the Brown corpus and on the Wall Street Journal under a wide range of experimental conditions. The nonemitting model is also much less prone to overtraining. The remainder of our article consists of four sections.
Mathematical modelling is the process of formulating an abstract model
in terms of mathematical language to describe the complex behaviour of
a real system. Mathematical models are quantitative models and often
expressed in terms of ordinary differential equations and partial differential
equations. Mathematical models can also be statistical models,
fuzzy logic models and empirical relationships. In fact, any model description
using mathematical language can be called a mathematical
All geographic information systems (GIS) are built
using formal models that describe how things are
located in space. A formal model is an abstract and
well-defined system of concepts. It defines the
vocabulary that we can use to describe and reason
about things. A geographic data model defines the
vocabulary for describing and reasoning about the
things that are located on the earth. Geographic data
models serve as the foundation on which all
geographic information systems are built.
We are all familiar with one model for geographic
[ Team LiB ] 11.1 Switch-Modeling Elements Verilog provides various constructs to model switch-level circuits. Digital circuits at MOS-transistor level are described using these elements. Array of instances can be defined for switches.
This paper describes a numerical model for the simulation of near shore wave dynamics and bottom topography change. In this part, the nearshore wave dynamics is simulated by solving the depth integrated Boussinesq approximation equations for nearshore wave transformation together with continuity equation with a Crank‐Nicholson scheme. The wave runup on beaches is simulated by a scheme, similar to the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) technique.