That slim and dispiriting publication Jobs for Philosophers made particularly
brief anddismal reading in 1987,when I gotmyphilosophydoctorate.
The ratio of available posts in university philosophy departments to the
people applying for them was said to be about one to 300.
Since 2005, the international development
perspectives have broadened, with new funding
sources, partnerships and configurations of
stakeholders. Global public-health initiatives
such as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and
Immunisation (GAVI) and the Global Fund to fight
AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) have
matured their operations and increasingly become
significant sources of revenue for national health
budgets in many low-income countries.
Dynamic Games are mathematical models of the interaction between different agents
who are controlling a dynamical system. Such situations occur in many instances like
armed conﬂicts (e.g. duel between a bomber and a jet ﬁghter), economic competition
(e.g. investments in R&D for computer companies), parlor games (Chess, Bridge).
The moving stories that people with a mental illness have published were the
inspiration for this work, and we are deeply indebted to all those people who have
shared their experiences with others in order to enhance our understanding. We
have written this book to share a model of psychological recovery from mental
illness which was derived from many personal accounts. There is a large and growing
scholarly literature on recovery, most of which is in broad agreement about the
elements of recovery and the many influences on the course of mental illness and its
impact on the individual...
Once the committee has given a positive opinion on
the FP, EuropeAID is responsible for the financing
decision procedure. As a general rule, the Commis-
sion adopts financing decisions by written proce-
dure, or in exceptional circumstances by habilitation
After approval of the FP by the Commission,
EuropeAID prepares the Financing Agreement and
takes responsibility for ensuring complete consistency
between the Financing Proposal and the FA. The FA
is based upon a model Financing Agreement,
prepared by EuropeAID.
India has more consumers for luxury goods than the adult population of several countries. A
, on the luxury goods sector shows that, there could well be more than 1 million
consumers. The projections are that it will treble by 2010.
India is leading the demographics in terms of the growth of HNWIs, as shown in Table 3 below.
With an impressive 22.7% growth on a base figure of 123 million (in 2007), as shown in Table 4
below, it is clear that India will continue to remain a destination of choice for sale of luxury goods. ...
Reverend and former Congressman Bob Edgar brought the house down
at our Conference in Aspen when he recited the arresting Martin Luther
King, Jr. quote that opens this report. But what was remarkable about
our Conference was that nearly everyone there brought the house down
at some point – in their unique ways.Whether through quiet moments
of candor, piercing insights about dynamics in our society or intense
debates, our remarkable participants delivered on the challenging
mandate set before them.
Casual car theft, such as those committed by joyriding juveniles, still exists but
has become a lesser part of the auto theft problem. Increasingly, car theft is a
sophisticated criminal enterprise that involves title fraud, vehicle identification
cloning, and stripping cars for parts in “chop shops.” The domestic and
international black market for stolen vehicles and their parts is a profitable business.
Vehicle identification cloning helps facilitate the crime of dealing in stolen
The model describes the behaviour of consumers, which are heterogeneous in terms
of age, income and ¯nancial assets. They maximize the utility from consumption sub-
ject to the life-cycle budget constraint. Their savings are remunerated at the deposit
interest rate and the cost of borrowing is given by the lending rate. When young, con-
sumers work and receive wages that depend on an idiosyncratic, stochastic component
and a deterministic life-cycle pro¯le of productivity. When old, they are on a manda-
tory retirement and receive pensions.
Even if there is symmetry ex ante between borrower and lender (i.e. the bank knows
the credit quality of the borrower), the collateral helps to alleviate moral hazard problems once
the loan has been granted. In this sense, the collateral pledged helps align the interests of
both lenders and borrowers, avoiding a situation in which the borrower makes less effort to
ensure the success of the project for which finance was given. Thus, collateral makes it
possible to limit the problem of the moral hazard faced by all banks when they lend money.
Collateral can therefore be seen as...
We propose a principled and efﬁcient phraseto-phrase alignment model, useful in machine translation as well as other related natural language processing problems. In a hidden semiMarkov model, word-to-phrase and phraseto-word translations are modeled directly by the system. Agreement between two directional models encourages the selection of parsimonious phrasal alignments, avoiding the overﬁtting commonly encountered in unsupervised training with multi-word units.
At this point you can start doing your literature search. Tell your professors about what
you've discovered|nine times out of ten they'll tell you to look in the \1983 AER" or
\Econometrica 77" or some textbook (maybe even one of mine). And lots of the time
they'll be right. You'll look there and nd \your" model|but it will be much better done,
much more fully developed, and much clearer.
Hey, no one said research would be easy.
We investigate the controversial issue about the upper bound of interjudge agreement in the use of a low-level grammatical representation. Pessimistic views suggest that several percent of words in running text are undecidable in terms of part-of-speech categories. Our experiments with 55kW data give reason for optimism: linguists with only 30 hours' training apply the EngCG-2 morphological tags with almost 100% interjudge agreement.
We present a novel computational formulation of speaker authority in discourse. This notion, which focuses on how speakers position themselves relative to each other in discourse, is ﬁrst developed into a reliable coding scheme (0.71 agreement between human annotators). We also provide a computational model for automatically annotating text using this coding scheme, using supervised learning enhanced by constraints implemented with Integer Linear Programming.
We present an enriched version of the Penn Arabic Treebank (Maamouri et al., 2004), where latent features necessary for modeling morpho-syntactic agreement in Arabic are manually annotated. We describe our process for efﬁcient annotation, and present the ﬁrst quantitative analysis of Arabic morphosyntactic phenomena.
Finding temporal and causal relations is crucial to understanding the semantic structure of a text. Since existing corpora provide no parallel temporal and causal annotations, we annotated 1000 conjoined event pairs, achieving inter-annotator agreement of 81.2% on temporal relations and 77.8% on causal relations. We trained machine learning models using features derived from WordNet and the Google N-gram corpus, and they outperformed a variety of baselines, achieving an F-measure of 49.0 for temporals and 52.4 for causals. ...
We describe a statistical approach for modeling agreements and disagreements in conversational interaction. Our approach ﬁrst identiﬁes adjacency pairs using maximum entropy ranking based on a set of lexical, durational, and structural features that look both forward and backward in the discourse. We then classify utterances as agreement or disagreement using these adjacency pairs and features that represent various pragmatic inﬂuences of previous agreement or disagreement on the current utterance. ...
Current complex-feature based grammars use a single procedure--unification--for a multitude of purposes, among them, enforcing formal agreement between purely syntactic features. This paper presents evidence from several natural languages that unification--variable-matching combined with variable substitution--is the wrong mechanism for effecting agreement. The view of grammar developed here is one in which unification is used for semantic interpretation, while purely formal agreement involves only a check for non-distinctness---i.e, variable-matching without variable substitution. ...
Previous work on the induction of selectional preferences has been mainly carried out for English and has concentrated almost exclusively on verbs and their direct objects. In this paper, we focus on class-based models of selectional preferences for German verbs and take into account not only direct objects, but also subjects and prepositional complements. We evaluate model performance against human judgments and show that there is no single method that overall performs best.
Today, many marketers use specific images that are meaningful to this audience: celebrities
such as entertainers, rap singers and athletes; models in fashionable dress; models using specific
cultural associations expressed in language and mannerisms; youth representing peer approval;
and popular music unique to a specific group of children of color. Other marketing strategies
lure young consumers with routine “low” and special discounted prices for over-sized amounts
of foods and beverages, such as McDonald’s Meal Deals and 7–11’s Big Gulp oversized