Understanding and quantitative describing of marine ecosystems requires an integration
of physics, chemistry and biology. The coupling between physics, which
regulates for example nutrient availability and the physical position of many organisms
is particularly important and thus cannot be described by biology alone.
Therefore the appropriate basis for theoretical investigations of marine systems are
coupled models, which integrate physical, chemical and biological interactions.
This paper presents an incremental probabilistic learner that models the acquistion of syntax and semantics from a corpus of child-directed utterances paired with possible representations of their meanings. These meaning representations approximate the contextual input available to the child; they do not specify the meanings of individual words or syntactic derivations. The learner then has to infer the meanings and syntactic properties of the words in the input along with a parsing model.
English noun/verb (N/V) pairs (contract, cement) have undergone complex patterns of change between 3 stress patterns for several centuries. We describe a longitudinal dataset of N/V pair pronunciations, leading to a set of properties to be accounted for by any computational model. We analyze the dynamics of 5 dynamical systems models of linguistic populations, each derived from a model of learning by individuals.
Current models of story comprehension have three major deficiencies: (1) lack of experimental support for the inference processes they involve (e.g. reliance on prediction); (2) indifference to 'kinds' of coherence (e.g. local and global); and (3) inability to find interpretations at variable depths. I propose that comprehension is driven by the need to find a representation that reaches a 'coherence threshold'. Variable inference processes are a reflection of different thresholds, and the skepticism of an individual inference process determines how thresholds are reached. ...
This edited volume contains a selection of chapters that are an outgrowth of the European
Conference on Mathematical and Theoretical Biology (ECMTB05, Dresden,
Germany, July 2005). The peer-reviewed contributions show that mathematical and
computational approaches are absolutely essential for solving central problems in the
life sciences, ranging from the organizational level of individual cells to the dynamics
of whole populations.
Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes about a decade and a half ago by Sumio Iijima, the scientiﬁc community involved in various aspects of research related to carbon nanotubes and related technologies has observed a steady progress of the science, as is typical for any new and novel material.
Generally, empirical studies have considered the effect of subsidies on health insurance coverage. But mandates to obtain health insurance often include monetary penalties for noncompliance, and thus a mandate with a penalty also affects the relative price of health insurance by making it costlier to be uninsured. In this respect, the health economics literature is an obvious starting point to search for information about the possible effects of mandates on coverage choices.
Taken as a whole, the German cinema is both more and less than the sum of its
films. When one thinks of individual titles, quite a few, especially from the 1920s and
early 1930s, have entered the canon, have become cultural icons the world over. Yet in
these very same classics, the brilliant and the dark sides of their genius appear not only
close together but inextricable. If we think of The Golem, The Cabinet of Dr Caligari,
Nosferatu and Dr Mabuse: these are titles which by themselves evoke the spirit of an
age, conjuring up...
Chronic Granulomatous Disease Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a group of disorders of granulocyte and monocyte oxidative metabolism. Although CGD is rare, with an incidence of 1 in 200,000 individuals, it is an important model of defective neutrophil oxidative metabolism. Most often CGD is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait; 30% of patients inherit the disease in an autosomal recessive pattern. Mutations in the genes for the four proteins that assemble at the plasma membrane account for all patients with CGD.
This monograph is about managing our financial wealth in the context of
having both human and financial capital. The portfolio that works best tends to
hold stocks and bonds as well as insurance products. We are attempting to put these
decisions together in a single framework. Thus, we are trying to provide a theoretical
foundation—a framework—and practical solutions for developing investment
advice for individual investors throughout their lives.
For complex design: number of gates is very large - need a more effective way to describe circuit
Dataflow model: Level of abstraction is higher than gate-level, describe the design using expressions instead of primitive gates
Circuit is designed in terms of dataflow between register, how a design processes data rather than instantiation of individual gates
RTL (register transfer level): is a combination of dataflow and behavioral modeling
(BQ) Though classroom instructional strategies should clearly be based on sound science and research, knowing when to use them and with whom is more of an art. In The art and science of teaching: A comprehensive framework for effective instruction, author Robert J. Marzano presents a model for ensuring quality teaching that balances the necessity of research-based data with the equally vital need to understand the strengths and weaknesses of individual students. Inviting you to refer part 1 of ebook. This part from chapter 1 to chapter 5.
Several times already in this chapter we have made statements about the standard errors, or uncertainties, in a set of M estimated parameters a. We have given some formulas for computing standard deviations or variances of individual parameters
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article A Markovian Model Representation of Individual Mobility Scenarios in Ad Hoc Networks and Its Evaluation
Supporters of credit scoring note that credit scores have statistical validity, and are
predictive of repayment behavior for large populations. However, this does not mean
that credit data are error free, nor that credit scoring models are perfect predictors of
individual creditworthiness; it only means that they work on average. While the systems
do present an accurate risk profile of a large numbers of consumers, data users who
manage large numbers of accounts priced by credit risk have a greater tolerance for errors
in credit scoring systems than consumers do.
Another key element in this regard is the creation of attractive investment packages for
potential buyers, possibly with government financial support. If the government does not
have sufficient access to specialized knowledge for the effective restructuring and
management of assets, taxpayers may be forced to cover disproportionately high losses,
despite a purchase price that accurately reflects the underlying value of the illiquid assets.
We present a novel probabilistic classiﬁer, which scales well to problems that involve a large number of classes and require training on large datasets. A prominent example of such a problem is language modeling. Our classiﬁer is based on the assumption that each feature is associated with a predictive strength, which quantiﬁes how well the feature can predict the class by itself. The predictions of individual features can then be combined according to their predictive strength, resulting in a model, whose parameters can be reliably and efﬁciently estimated.
Psychologist H.J. Eysenck’s studies support the existence of an objective factor of aesthetic
appreciation independent of individual tastes. Eysenck described a “general factor” underlying
aesthetic discrimination [Eys40][Eys72]. Eysenck asked observers to rank over 300 pictures
of portraits, vases, clocks, ships, and so forth, in the order of liking. The subjects and pictures
were chosen to eliminate irrelevant associations due to the cultural background of the sub-
jects, the technical execution of the images, and subjects’ familiarity with the images.
This paper presents an enhanced model of plan-based dialogue understanding. Most plan-based dialogue understanding models derived from [Litman and Allen, 1987] assume that the dialogue speakers have access to the same domain plan library, and that the active domain plans are shared by the two speakers. We call these features shared domain plan constraints.