A response of the engineering profession to the challenges of security, poverty and
under-development, and environmental sustainability is described. Ethical codes,
which govern the behavior of engineers, are examined from a historical perspective
linking the prevailing codes to models of the natural world. A new ethical code based
on a recently introduced model of Nature as an integral community is provided and
discussed. Applications of the new code are described using a case study approach.
Engineers . . .Build products such as cell phones, home appliances, heart valves, bridges, & cars. In general they advance society by building new technology. Develop processes, such as the process to convert salt water into fresh water or the
process to recycle bottles. These processes change how we live and what we can accomplish.Decisions made by
engineers usually have
serious consequences to
This volume contains the papers prepared for the Sixth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, held 19-23 April 1993 in Utrecht. The Programme Committee received a large number of submissions (5 page extended abstracts) from all over the world. The general quality of the submissions was high. Out of a total of 229 submissions, 47 were accepted, including 7 reserve papers. Every abstract submitted was reviewed by one member of the Programme Committee and three referees (see pages v and vi). ...
There were already proposals for autcmatic translation systems in the 30's, but it was not until after the second world war that real enthusiasm led to heavy funding and unrealistic expectations. Traditionally, the start of intensive work on machine translation is taken as being a memorand~n of Warren Weaver, then Director of the Natural Sciences Division of the Rockefeller Foundation, in 1949.
An ecosystem is a biotic (organic) community joined with the abiotic (inorganic) conditions it lives in. Abiotic factors determine the kind of biotic community that will be found in a given area because the biotic community is both supported by and limited by the abiotic factors. Ecosystems are important because they are the functional units of sustainable life on Earth, making them models of the cycles that produce sustainability.
Weishang Qu, head of modelling at the Millennium Institute, Washington DC, has examined the
World Bank’s new sustainability indicators, including genuine savings, and found that they “are
very much GDP dependent”. As genuine savings calculations start with GDP figures before
adding and subtracting certain values, they will tend to justify increasing real GDP/economic
growth as the central measure of development/progress.
Nations with strongly positive GDP are far less likely to obtain a weak or negative genuine
Esfinge is a general domain Portuguese question answering system. It tries to take advantage of the great amount of information existent in the World Wide Web. Since Portuguese is one of the most used languages in the web and the web itself is a constantly growing source of updated information, this kind of techniques are quite interesting and promising.
Every year in the United States, more teenagers and young adults die
from suicide than from cancer, heart disease, AIDS, birth defects, stroke,
pneumonia, and asthma combined. Despite decades of research into brain
chemistry and many more decades of probing into behavioral models, there
remains a limited base of knowledge as to why people commit suicide. Often
what families believe is very different from the beliefs of professionals. How
families try to help their suicidal loved ones also is often quite different from
the approach taken by experts.
This paper considers what types of knowledge one must possess in order to reason about actions. Rather than concentrating on how actions are performed, as is done in the problem-solving literature, it examines the set of conditions under which an action can be said to have occurred. In other words, if one is told that action A occurred, what can be inferred about the state of the world? In particular, if the representation can define such conditions, it must have good models of time, belief, and intention. ...
Can a realist model t h e o r y of natural language be computationally plausible? Or, t o p u t i t another way, is the view of linguistic meaning as a relation between expressions of a natural language and things (objects, properties, etc.) in the world, as opposed to a relation between expressions and procedures in the head. consistent with a computational approach to understanding natural language?
The undisputed favorite application for natural language interfaces has been data base query. Why? The reasons range from the relative simplicity of the task, including shallow semantic processing, to the potential real-world utility of the resultant system. Because of such reasons, the data base query task was an excellent paradigmatic problem for computational linguistics, and for the very same reasons it is now time for the field to abandon its protective cocoon and progress beyond this rather limiting task. ...
We demonstrate an open-source natural language generation engine that produces descriptions of entities and classes in English and Greek from OWL ontologies that have been annotated with linguistic and user modeling information expressed in RDF . We also demonstrate an accompanying plug-in for the Prot´ g´ ontology editor, e e which can be used to create the ontology’s annotations and generate previews of the resulting texts by invoking the generation engine.
Until very recently, most NLP tasks (e.g., parsing, tagging, etc.) have been conﬁned to a very limited number of languages, the so-called majority languages. Now, as the ﬁeld moves into the era of developing tools for Resource Poor Languages (RPLs)—a vast majority of the world’s 7,000 languages are resource poor—the discipline is confronted not only with the algorithmic challenges of limited data, but also the sheer difﬁculty of locating data in the ﬁrst place.
The resulting graph is a nucleus for constructing models of possible worlds in which the sentence is true. • Laws of the world behave like demons or triggers thai monitor the models and block illegal extensions. • If a surface model could be extended infinitely deep, the result would be a complete standard model. This approach leads to an infinite sequence of algorithms ranging from plausible inference to exact deduction; they are analogous to the varying levels of search in game playing programs. ...
Model-theoretic pragmatics is an attempt to provide a formal description of the pragmatics of natural language as effects arising from using model-theoretic semantics in a dynamic environment. The pragmatic phenomena considered here have been variously labeled ~resupposition [I] and eonven¢ional implicature . The models used in traditional model-theoretic semantics provide a complete and static representation of knowledge about the world, llowever, this is not the environment in which language is used. ...
Although 1972 was the year that Winograd published his now classic natural language Study of the blocks world, that fact had not yet penetrated to the ACL. At that time people with AI computational interests were strictly in a minority in the association and it was a radical move to appoint Roger Schank as program chairman for the year's meeting.
An utterance may be syntactically and semantIcally well-formed yet violate the pragmatic rules of the world model. This paper presents a context-based strateEy for constructing a cooperative but limited response to pragmatlcally illformed queries. Sug~estlon heuristics use a context model of the speaker's task inferred from the preceding dialogue to propose revisions to the speaker's ill-formed query. Selection heuristics then evaluate these suggestions based upon semantic and relevance criteria. ...
News stories are typically rich in NEs and therefore, comparable news corpora can be expected to contain NETEs (Klementiev and Roth, 2006; Tao et al., 2006). The large quantity and the perpetual availability of news corpora in many of the world’s languages, make mining of NETEs a viable alternative to traditional approaches. It is this opportunity that we address in our work. In this paper, we detail an effective and scalable mining method, called MINT (MIning Named-entity Transliteration equivalents), for mining of NETEs from large comparable corpora. ...
This paper discusses an implemented program that automatically classifies verbs into those that ~describe only states of the world, such as to know, and those that describe events, such as to look. It works by exploiting the con, straint between the syntactic environments in which a verb can occur and its meaning. The only input is on-line text. This demonstrates an important new technique for the automatic generation of lexical databases.
The Pacific Ocean isn’t just the deepest and largest ocean.
It is also home to one of the world’s most amazing natural
wonders: the Great Barrier Reef. Located off of the
northeastern coast of Australia, the Great Barrier Reef
is 210 separate coral reefs that stretch for more
than 1,260 miles (2,028 kilometers) around
northern Australia. Th e Great Barrier Reef is
full of some of the most amazing, beautiful, and
deadly sea creatures on the planet, including the
Irukandji jellyfi sh and the great white shark....