A seeder should place seed in an environment for reliable germination. The main objective
of sowing is to put seeds at a desired depth and spacing within the row. Uniform seed
distribution within the soil result in better germination and emergence and increase yield by
minimizing competition between plants for available light, water, and nutrients. A number
of factors affect seed distribution in soil. Seed metering system, seed delivery tube, furrow
opener design, physical attributes of seed and soil conditions all play a part in determining
“Be it deep or shallow, red or black, sand or clay, the soil is the link between the rock
core of the earth and the living things on its surface. It is the foothold for the plants we
grow. Therein lays the main reason for our interest in soils.” --- Roy W. Simonson,
USDA Yearbook of Agriculture, 1957.
The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) was probably the first scientist to
examine a soil profile and suggest factors responsible for the structure of the various
Written by an expert with over 20 years of experience in the field, this timely volume provides - in a single source - all aspects of humidity measurement and instrumentation, including rudiments and theory, common applications, advantages and limitations of frequently used sensors and techniques, and guidelines for installation, maintenance, and calibration.
High distribution uniformity and low application rate, at
frequent irrigation cycles, provide maximum control and
monitoring of the wetted and aerated soil profile, which is
essential for the shallow root system of the lettuce.
Low application rate (3-5 mm/h): allows optimal absorption
of water into the soil with no run-off, even on slopes.
Low droplet impact: preserves soil structure and prevents
crust formation to allow perfect germination and development.
Because agricultural production is seasonal, the products have to be stored for distribution later.
The storage function involves risks -- risks of deterioration of products and risks of fluctuating
market prices. Elaborate precautions are taken to guard against any deterioration of products
from excessive moisture, heat, contaminating metals, bacteria and fungi, insects, and rodents and
against loss from fire and theft.
Moisture deficiencies occurring early in the crop cycle
may delay the maturity season and reduce yields.
Shortages later in the season often lower quality, as
well as yields. However, irrigation surplus, especially
late in the season, can reduce both the quality and the
post-harvest life of the crop.
Uneven or surplus irrigation, above the amount
required to replace evapotranspiration, causes nitrate
leaching below the root system and the ability of
the crop to recover from the nitrogen deficiency
A new class of rugged fiber optic connectors has been introduced to speed
residential connection in Fiber-To-The-Premises (FTTP) cabling networks. The
connectors are strategically located in the distribution network to facilitate
service connection, maintenance and reconfiguration of subscriber services.
Connectors are typically staged at the street outside a residence to facilitate
easy access and connection to the residence at a later date.